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Rickards: The Great Supply Chain Collapse

Rickards: The Great Supply Chain Collapse

Authored by James Rickards via DailyReckoning.com,

What’s at the root of the supply chain breakdown? That’s a critical question but the answer is almost irrelevant. The supply chain is a complex…

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Rickards: The Great Supply Chain Collapse

Authored by James Rickards via DailyReckoning.com,

What’s at the root of the supply chain breakdown? That’s a critical question but the answer is almost irrelevant. The supply chain is a complex dynamic system of immense scale. It is of a complexity comparable to the climate as a system.

This means that exact cause and effect cannot be computed because the processing power needed exceeds the combined processing power of every computer in the world.

Most people have some notion of how supply chains work, but few understand how extensive, complex and vulnerable they are. If you go to the store to buy a loaf of bread, you know that the bread did not mystically appear on the shelf.

It was delivered by a local bakery, put on the shelf by a clerk, you carried it home and served it with dinner. That’s a succinct description of a supply chain – from baker to store to home.

Yet that description barely scratches the surface. What about the truck driver who delivered the bread from the bakery to the store? Where did the bakery get the flour, yeast and water needed to make the bread? What about the ovens used to bake the bread? When the bread was baked, it was put in clear or paper wrappers of some sort. Where did those come from?

Even that expanded description of a supply chain is just getting started in terms of a complete chain. The flour used for baking came from wheat. That wheat was grown on a farm and harvested with heavy equipment. The farmer hires labor, uses water and fertilizer and sends his wheat out for processing and packaging before it gets to the bakery.

The manufacturer who built the oven has his own supply chain of steel, tempered glass, semiconductors, electrical circuits and other inputs needed to build the ovens. The ovens are either hand crafted (engineered-to-order) or mass produced (made-to-stock) in a factory that may use either assembly lines or manufacturing cells to get the job done.

The factory requires inputs of electricity, natural gas, heating and ventilation systems, and skilled labor to turn out the ovens.

The store that sells the bread is on the receiving end of numerous supply chains. It also requires electricity, natural gas, heating and ventilation systems and skilled labor to keep the doors open and keep merchandise in stock. The store has loading docks, back rooms for inventory, forklifts and conveyor belts to move its merchandise from truck to shelf.

Every link in these supply chains requires transportation. The farmer relies on trucks or rail for deliveries of seeds, fertilizers, equipment and other inputs. The oven manufacturer also relies on trucks or rail for deliveries of its inputs, including oven components. The bakery and the store rely mainly on trucks for deliveries of their inputs and the finished loaves of bread. The consumer relies on her automobile to get to the store and return home.

These transportation modes have their own supply chains involving truck drivers, train engineers, good roads, good railroads, rail spurs and energy supplies to keep moving and keep deliveries on time.

This entire network (farms, factories, bakeries, stores, trucks, railroads and consumers) relies on energy supplies to keep working. The energy can come from nuclear reactors, coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plants or renewable sources fed to a grid of high-tension wires, substations, transformers and local connections to reach the individual user.

Everything described above sits somewhere in a complex supply chain needed to produce one loaf of bread. Now take everything else in the grocery store (fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, canned goods, coffee, condiments and so on) and imagine the supply chains needed for each one of those products.

Then take all the other stores in the shopping center (home goods, clothing, pharmacy, hardware, restaurants, sporting goods) and imagine all the goods and services available from those vendors and the supply chains behind each and every one of those.

In case you think I have exaggerated the components and steps in making a loaf of bread in the above example, I didn’t. The example above is a grossly simplified description of the actual supply chain.

A full description of the needed supply chain would reach back further (where do the seeds for the wheat come from?) and branch off in tangential directions (where do the bread wrappers originate?).

A full description of the loaf of bread supply chain with choice of vendor analysis, quality-control tests and bulk purchase discounts among other decision tree branches could easily stretch to several hundred pages.

Now consider all of the supply chain links and possible bottlenecks described above are purely domestic. But very few supply chains are actually that local. CEOs, logistics engineers, consultants and politicians have spent the past 30 years making supply chains global.

You’ve heard discussion of globalization since the early 1990s. What one may not have realized is that the process that was being globalized was the supply chain.

You know your iPhone comes from China. Did you know that the specialized glass used in the iPhone comes from South Korea? Did you know the semiconductors in the iPhone come from Taiwan? That the intellectual property and design of the iPhone are from California?

The iPhone includes flash storage from Japan, gyroscopes from Germany, audio amplifiers, battery chargers, display port multiplexers, batteries, cameras and hundreds of other advanced parts.

In total, Apple works with suppliers in 43 countries on six continents to source the materials and parts that go into an iPhone. That’s a quick overview of the iPhone supply chain. Of course, every supplier in that supply chain has its own supply chain of sources and processes. Again, supply chains are immensely complex.

Once the global perspective is added, we have to expand our transportation options from trucks and trains to include ships and planes. That means ports and airports are additional links in the chain.

Those facilities have their own links and inputs including cranes, containers, port authorities, air traffic controllers, pilots, captains and the vessels themselves. And to our list of trucks, trains, ships and planes we can add pipelines that transport liquids such as petroleum, gasoline and natural gas.

You get the idea. Supply chains may be hidden but they are everywhere. They are interconnected, densely networked and unimaginably complex.

The touchstone of these efforts was the idea of just-in-time inventory (JIT). If you’re installing seats on an automobile assembly line, it is ideal if those seats arrive at the plant the same morning as the installation. That minimizes storage and inventory costs. The same is true for every part installed on the assembly line. The logistics behind this are daunting but can be managed with state-of-the-art software.

All these efforts are fine as far as they go. The cost savings are real. The supply chains are efficient. The capacity of this system to keep a lid on costs is demonstrable.

The supply chain revolution since the early 1990s has been about cost reduction, which gets passed to consumers in the form of lower prices. That practically explains the entire phenomenon.

There’s only one problem. The system is extremely fragile. When things break down, everything gets worse at the same time. One missed delivery can result in an entire assembly line shutting down. One delayed vessel can result in empty shelves. One power outage can result in a transportation breakdown.

In a nutshell, that’s what has happened to the global supply chain. There’s a lack of redundancy. The system is not robust to shocks. The shocks have occurred nevertheless (pandemic, trade wars, China-U.S. decoupling, bank collateral shortages and more) and the system has broken down.

The failures have cascaded. Delays in receiving commodity inputs in China have resulted in manufacturing delays for exports. Energy shortages in China have resulted in further disruption of steel production, mining, transportation and other basic industries.

Port delays in Los Angeles have resulted in component and finished goods delayed in the U.S. Semiconductor shortages have halted production of electronics, appliances, automobiles and other consumer durables that rely on automated applications. You’ve seen how complex the system is.

The bottom line is if supply chains are breaking down, the economy is breaking down. If the economy breaks down, the breakdown of social order is not far behind.

And the costs of social disorder are far higher than any possible savings from supposedly efficient supply chains.

Tyler Durden Sun, 12/19/2021 - 15:05

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Economics

U.S. Experienced Highest Ever Combined Rates of Deaths Due to Alcohol, Drugs, and Suicide During the COVID-19 Pandemic

U.S. Experienced Highest Ever Combined Rates of Deaths Due to Alcohol, Drugs, and Suicide During the COVID-19 Pandemic
PR Newswire
WASHINGTON, May 24, 2022

Deaths spanned ages, racial and ethnic groups and geography but disproportionately harmed ce…

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U.S. Experienced Highest Ever Combined Rates of Deaths Due to Alcohol, Drugs, and Suicide During the COVID-19 Pandemic

PR Newswire

Deaths spanned ages, racial and ethnic groups and geography but disproportionately harmed certain young people and people of color

Solutions are known and must be implemented

WASHINGTON, May 24, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Deaths associated with alcohol, drugs, and suicide took the lives of 186,763 Americans in 2020, a 20 percent one year increase in the combined death rate and the highest number of substance misuse deaths ever recorded for a single year, according to a report released today by Trust for America's Health (TFAH) and Well Being Trust. In addition, provisional data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show drug overdose deaths continued to increase in 2021.

While alcohol, drug, and suicide deaths have been increasing for decades, the 2020 increase was unprecedented and driven by a 30 percent increase in the rate of drug-induced deaths and a 27 percent increase in the rate of alcohol-induced deaths. Combined rates of alcohol, drug, and suicide deaths increased in all 50 states except New Hampshire, and for the first time two states – West Virginia and New Mexico – surpassed 100 deaths per 100,000 state residents from alcohol, drugs, and suicide combined in a single year.

  • The overall drug-induced death rate increased by 30 percent, largely driven by increases in deaths due to use of synthetic opioids and psychostimulants. The rate of drug-induced death rose for all but one population group – those over 75 years of age. There were particularly large increases in communities of color, among youth (17 years old and younger) and young adults (18-34 years of age) and in the South and West regions of the country.
  • Alcohol-induced death rates increased by 27 percent, and the increase spanned demographic groups and parts of the country, including in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Increases were particularly high among young adults, American Indians/Alaska Native and Asian communities, and for those living in the Midwest.
  • Overall suicide rates declined by 3 percent but that trend was not universal. The decline occurred among white people but suicide deaths for the year increased among American Indian, Black, and Latino people. Suicide rates for adults ages 35-74, declined, but rates for youth and young adults increased.

"With the trends continuing to go in the wrong direction we must ask ourselves, what will it take to move to robust and comprehensive action? The story behind these data is beyond devastating and heartbreaking to those families who have suffered loss," said Dr. Benjamin F. Miller, President, Well Being Trust. "Let's begin to address this crisis with the urgency it deserves by bringing care to where people are. From schools to primary care to our workplaces, let's ensure that all places are equipped to address mental health and substance misuse. This is not just the responsibility of the mental health and addiction field – but all our responsibility."

TFAH and Well Being Trust have been reporting alcohol-induced, drug-induced and suicide deaths as part of their Pain in the Nation initiative since 2017. In the initiative's inaugural 2017 report, alcohol, drug and suicide deaths accounted for 55,403 deaths per year, as compared to the 186,763 deaths associated with alcohol, drugs or suicide in this year's report. According to the report authors and other experts, the stunning increase in alcohol and drug deaths in 2020 was exacerbated by: a continued rise in synthetic opioid and psychostimulant overdoses and the anxiety, stress, grief, disruption to substance misuse recovery programs, and financial hardship many individuals and families experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The report includes recommendations for steps the federal, state, and local governments should take to begin to reverse the deaths of despair crisis. They include:

Invest in programs that promote health and prevent substance misuse and suicide:

  • Support in-school programs focused on students' mental health and preventing substance use.
  • Strengthen trauma-informed and culturally competent and linguistically appropriate programs within all youth-serving agencies, including the juvenile justice system.
  • Strengthen the continuum of crisis intervention programs with a focus on the newly established "988" lifeline.
  • Expand CDC comprehensive suicide-prevention efforts, including measures to strengthen economic supports, promote connectedness, and create protective environments.
  • Build programs that address the social determinants of health and promote resilience in children, families and communities including those focused on the prevention of adverse childhood experiences.

Address the substance misuse and overdose crises:

  • Promote harm-reduction policies to reduce overdose and blood-borne infections, including increasing access to syringe service programs, naloxone, and fentanyl test strips.
  • Preserve and extend programs that create more flexible access to substance use disorder treatment during the pandemic.
  • Direct funding from the opioid litigation settlement to primary prevention of youth substance misuse.
  • Lower excessive alcohol use through policies that limit where and when alcohol can be served/purchased and by the use of alcohol excise taxes.

Transform the mental health and substance misuse prevention system

  • Increase access to mental health and substance use treatment through full enforcement of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act.
  • Combat stigma about mental health issues and access to service.
  • Modernize physical and mental health services by aligning service delivery, provider payment, quality measures, and training toward the whole health of individuals and integrated care.
  • Build grassroots community capacity for early identification and intervention for individuals with mental health and substance use disorders, including through community-based or non-traditional settings.

"It is imperative that officials at every level of government act on the recommended policies in this report. The data are shockingly clear – lives are at risk in every community due to alcohol, drugs, and suicide and communities that experience disadvantage because of long-standing social, economic and environmental inequities suffer a disproportionate impact. There is an urgent need for action in order to save lives," said J. Nadine Gracia, M.D., MSCE, President and CEO of the Trust for America's Health.

Read the full report at: https://www.tfah.org/report-details/pain-in-the-nation-2022

Trust for America's Health is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that promotes optimal health for every person and community and makes the prevention of illness and injury a national priority. 

Well Being Trust is an impact philanthropy dedicated to advancing the mental, social, and spiritual health of the nation.

View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/us-experienced-highest-ever-combined-rates-of-deaths-due-to-alcohol-drugs-and-suicide-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-301552480.html

SOURCE Trust for America's Health

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Economics

Two Quick Notes: Inflation and the Stock Market Plunge

Sorry folks, I’m back!!!! Anyhow, I was following the news the last few weeks and was struck by a couple of items that seem to have gotten little attention….

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Sorry folks, I’m back!!!! Anyhow, I was following the news the last few weeks and was struck by a couple of items that seem to have gotten little attention.

First, on inflation, we have seen a sharp fall in the breakeven inflation rate for inflation-indexed 10-yearTreasury bonds compared with conventional Treasury bonds. This breakeven rate had been rising through the fall and winter, peaking at just over 3.0 percent on April 21.

Anyhow, it has since fallen sharply, and stood at 2.6 percent on Monday. This is still somewhat higher than the Fed’s 2.0 percent inflation target, but not by much, since everyone expects higher inflation in 2022 and there is around a 0.3 percentage point gap between the CPI, which is the basis of the index and the PCE deflator than the Fed targets.

The drop in this breakeven rate deserves more attention than it’s getting. As someone who warned of both the stock bubble in the 1990s and the housing bubble in the 00s, I am well aware that markets can be wrong, but it is still worth paying attention to what they are telling us.

Rather than seeing a story of spiraling inflation, actors in financial markets seem to be expecting that the inflation rate will quickly fall back to more moderate levels. That is worth noting.

 

 

The other issue is the plunge in the stock market that has upset many people, including some self-identified liberals. There all sorts of factors, both rational and irrational, that can explain stock market movements, but in principle, the stock market is supposed to represent the discounted value of future corporate profits.

Many of us have noted that the pandemic inflation has been associated with a sharp shift from wage income to profit income, with the latter rising by roughly two percentage points of corporate income. The immediate trigger for the latest plunge was reports from Target and Amazon that they are seeing increasing pricing pressure, and therefore lower profit margins, on a wide range of goods.

Let’s suppose that this is the beginning of a reversal in profit shares, with the possibility that they will return to their pre-pandemic level. This is what many of us had been hoping for.

But what would be the predicted effect on stock prices of a drop in profit shares of roughly 2 percentage points, or 10 percent of current profits? That’s right, we would expect a plunge in stock prices. The good news for workers here (lower prices mean high real wages) is bad news for the stock market.

Too early to say if this is in fact the story, but if it is, progressives should be happy.

The post Two Quick Notes: Inflation and the Stock Market Plunge appeared first on Center for Economic and Policy Research.

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Economics

Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Size to Increase by USD 16.02 Billion from 2021 to 2026| Technavio

Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Size to Increase by USD 16.02 Billion from 2021 to 2026| Technavio
PR Newswire
NEW YORK, May 23, 2022

NEW YORK, May 23, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Technavio categorizes the municipal water and was…

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Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Size to Increase by USD 16.02 Billion from 2021 to 2026| Technavio

PR Newswire

NEW YORK, May 23, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Technavio categorizes the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market as a part of the global utility market. The municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market research report provides valuable insights on the post-COVID-19 impact on the market, which will help companies evaluate their business approaches. 

Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market: Key Drivers

The increase in demand for reclaimed water is driving the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market. The significant increase in population has led to growing pressure on natural water resources. Also, the increase in demand for organic foods and naturally grown grains is leading to the higher requirement of water for irrigation. An assessment published by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in October 2021 presents the current state of water stress in Europe with an aim to focus on managing water availability risks under the impacts of climate change. 

View market report outlook to learn more about factors influencing the market.

Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market: Key Trends

The introduction of advanced membrane technologies is expected to positively impact the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market during the forecast period.  Membrane water treatment technology gained popularity and became affordable over the last three decades. These technologies are used for ultra-purification of the water. Based on the pore sizes, the technology is classified into microfiltration membrane (MF), reverse osmosis membrane (RO), microfiltration membrane (MF), ultrafiltration membrane (UF), and nanofiltration membrane (NF). The fabricated nanoporous membranes are used to remove various water pollutants, including metallic ions, salt, biological substrates, nanoparticles, and organic chemicals. 

Vendor Insights

The report identifies the following as the dominant vendors in the market:

  • 3M Corp.
  • Aquatech International LLC
  • Chembond Chemicals Ltd.
  • Culligan International Co.
  • Danaher Corp.
  • Ecolab Inc.
  • Evoqua Water Technologies LLC
  • General Electric Co.
  • Kuraray Co. Ltd.
  • Kurita Water Industries Ltd.
  • Mott MacDonald
  • Pentair Plc
  • SUEZ WTS USA Inc.
  • The Dow Chemical Co.
  • Thermax Ltd.
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
  • Toray Industries Inc.
  • Veolia Environnement Group
  • WABAG Group
  • Xylem Inc.

Product Insights and News

The municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market forecast report offers in-depth insights into key vendor profiles. The profiles include information on the production, sustainability, and prospects of the leading companies. For instance, 3M Corp., a leading vendor, offers membrane modules for ultrafiltration which are used to remove turbidity, suspended solids, and pathogens in order to improve the effluent quality of wastewater, thus can be reused in various applications. The company also offers industrial abrasives and finishing for metalworking applications, closure systems for personal hygiene products, autobody repair solutions, masking, and packaging materials.

Learn more about the vendors in the market as you download your sample copy

APAC's Contribution to Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market

The increased demand for water for drinking as well as water for domestic usage due to urbanization and rapid population growth is expected to facilitate the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market growth in APAC over the forecast period. The region is expected to contribute to 37% of market growth as countries such as China and Japan are the key markets for municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market. Market growth in APAC will be faster than the growth of the market in other regions.

Download your sample copy and know more about the market contribution in APAC

Municipal Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Scope

Report Coverage

Details

Page number

120

Base year

2021

Forecast period

2022-2026

Growth momentum & CAGR

Accelerate at a CAGR of 4.84%

Market growth 2022-2026

$ 16.02 billion

Market structure

Fragmented

YoY growth (%)

4.25

Regional analysis

APAC, North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, and South America

Performing market contribution

APAC at 49%

Key consumer countries

US, China, Japan, France, and Brazil

Competitive landscape

Leading companies, Competitive strategies, Consumer engagement scope

Key companies profiled

3M Corp., Aquatech International LLC, Chembond Chemicals Ltd., Culligan International Co., Danaher Corp., Ecolab Inc., Evoqua Water Technologies LLC, General Electric Co., Kuraray Co. Ltd., Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Mott MacDonald, Pentair Plc, SUEZ WTS USA Inc., The Dow Chemical Co., Thermax Ltd., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Toray Industries Inc., Veolia Environnement Group, WABAG Group, and Xylem Inc.

Market dynamics

Parent market analysis, Market growth inducers and obstacles, Fast-growing and slow-growing segment analysis, COVID 19 impact and recovery analysis and future consumer dynamics, Market condition analysis for forecast period

Customization purview

If our report has not included the data that you are looking for, you can reach out to our analysts and get segments customized.

Get your report sample copy to unlock scope and parent market analysis insights

Market Segmentation

The municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market is divided by application into wastewater treatment segment and water treatment segment. The municipal water and wastewater treatment segment is expected to be the major contributor to the market. Wastewater needs to be treated for its usage for residential and industrial purposes as it contains several dissolved toxin oxides and hazardous elements.

Key Highlights

  • CAGR of the market during the forecast period 2022-2026
  • Comprehensive details of factors that will challenge the growth of municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market vendors
  • Accurate predictions on upcoming trends and changes in consumer behavior
  • Detailed information on factors that will drive municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market growth during the next five years
  • Precise estimation of the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment market size and its contribution to the parent market
  • The growth of the municipal water and wastewater treatment equipment industry across APAC, North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, and South America

Related Reports:

Rainwater Harvesting Systems Market by End-user and Geography - Forecast and Analysis 2022-2026 Download your sample

Produced Water Treatment Market by Application and Geography - Forecast and Analysis 2021-2025 Download your sample

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

  • 1.1 Market overview
    • Exhibit 01: Executive Summary – Chart on Market Overview
    • Exhibit 02: Executive Summary – Data Table on Market Overview
    • Exhibit 03: Executive Summary – Chart on Global Market Characteristics
    • Exhibit 04: Executive Summary – Chart on Market by Geography
    • Exhibit 05: Executive Summary – Chart on Market Segmentation by Application
    • Exhibit 06: Executive Summary – Chart on Incremental Growth
    • Exhibit 07: Executive Summary – Data Table on Incremental Growth
    • Exhibit 08: Executive Summary – Chart on Vendor Market Positioning

2 Market Landscape

  • 2.1 Market ecosystem
    • Exhibit 09: Parent market
    • Exhibit 10: Market Characteristics

3 Market Sizing

  • 3.1 Market definition
    • Exhibit 11: Offerings of vendors included in the market definition
  • 3.2 Market segment analysis
    • Exhibit 12: Market segments
  • 3.3 Market size 2021
  • 3.4 Market outlook: Forecast for 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 13: Chart on Global - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 14: Data Table on Global - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 15: Chart on Global Market: Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 16: Data Table on Global Market: Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)

4 Five Forces Analysis

  • 4.1 Five forces summary
    • Exhibit 17: Five forces analysis - Comparison between2021 and 2026
  • 4.2 Bargaining power of buyers
    • Exhibit 18: Chart on Bargaining power of buyers – Impact of key factors 2021 and 2026
  • 4.3 Bargaining power of suppliers
    • Exhibit 19: Bargaining power of suppliers – Impact of key factors in 2021 and 2026
  • 4.4 Threat of new entrants
    • Exhibit 20: Threat of new entrants – Impact of key factors in 2021 and 2026
  • 4.5 Threat of substitutes
    • Exhibit 21: Threat of substitutes – Impact of key factors in 2021 and 2026
  • 4.6 Threat of rivalry
    • Exhibit 22: Threat of rivalry – Impact of key factors in 2021 and 2026
  • 4.7 Market condition
    • Exhibit 23: Chart on Market condition - Five forces 2021 and 2026

5 Market Segmentation by Application

  • 5.1 Market segments
    • Exhibit 24: Chart on Application - Market share 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 25: Data Table on Application - Market share 2021-2026 (%)
  • 5.2 Comparison by Application
    • Exhibit 26: Chart on Comparison by Application
    • Exhibit 27: Data Table on Comparison by Application
  • 5.3 Wastewater treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 28: Chart on Wastewater treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 29: Data Table on Wastewater treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 30: Chart on Wastewater treatment - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 31: Data Table on Wastewater treatment - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 5.4 Water treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 32: Chart on Water treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 33: Data Table on Water treatment - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 34: Chart on Water treatment - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 35: Data Table on Water treatment - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 5.5 Market opportunity by Application
    • Exhibit 36: Market opportunity by Application ($ million)

6 Customer Landscape

  • 6.1 Customer landscape overview
    • Exhibit 37: Analysis of price sensitivity, lifecycle, customer purchase basket, adoption rates, and purchase criteria

7 Geographic Landscape

  • 7.1 Geographic segmentation
    • Exhibit 38: Chart on Market share by geography 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 39: Data Table on Market share by geography 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.2 Geographic comparison
    • Exhibit 40: Chart on Geographic comparison
    • Exhibit 41: Data Table on Geographic comparison
  • 7.3 APAC - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 42: Chart on APAC - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 43: Data Table on APAC - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 44: Chart on APAC - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 45: Data Table on APAC - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.4 North America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 46: Chart on North America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 47: Data Table on North America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 48: Chart on North America - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 49: Data Table on North America - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.5 Europe - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 50: Chart on Europe - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 51: Data Table on Europe - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 52: Chart on Europe - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 53: Data Table on Europe - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.6 Middle East and Africa - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 54: Chart on Middle East and Africa - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 55: Data Table on Middle East and Africa - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 56: Chart on Middle East and Africa - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 57: Data Table on Middle East and Africa - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.7 South America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 58: Chart on South America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 59: Data Table on South America - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 60: Chart on South America - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 61: Data Table on South America - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.8 China - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 62: Chart on China - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 63: Data Table on China - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 64: Chart on China - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 65: Data Table on China - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.9 US - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 66: Chart on US - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 67: Data Table on US - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 68: Chart on US - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 69: Data Table on US - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.10 Japan - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 70: Chart on Japan - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 71: Data Table on Japan - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 72: Chart on Japan - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 73: Data Table on Japan - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.11 France - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 74: Chart on France - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 75: Data Table on France - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 76: Chart on France - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 77: Data Table on France - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.12 Brazil - Market size and forecast 2021-2026
    • Exhibit 78: Chart on Brazil - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 79: Data Table on Brazil - Market size and forecast 2021-2026 ($ million)
    • Exhibit 80: Chart on Brazil - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
    • Exhibit 81: Data Table on Brazil - Year-over-year growth 2021-2026 (%)
  • 7.13 Market opportunity by geography
    • Exhibit 82: Market opportunity by geography ($ million)

8 Drivers, Challenges, and Trends

  • 8.1 Market drivers
  • 8.2 Market challenges
  • 8.3 Impact of drivers and challenges
    • Exhibit 83: Impact of drivers and challenges in 2021 and 2026
  • 8.4 Market trends

9 Vendor Landscape

  • 9.1 Overview
  • 9.2 Vendor landscape
    • Exhibit 84: Overview on Criticality of inputs and Factors of differentiation
  • 9.3 Landscape disruption
    • Exhibit 85: Overview on factors of disruption
  • 9.4 Industry risks
    • Exhibit 86: Impact of key risks on business

10 Vendor Analysis

  • 10.1 Vendors covered
    • Exhibit 87: Vendors covered
  • 10.2 Market positioning of vendors
    • Exhibit 88: Matrix on vendor position and classification
  • 10.3 3M Corp.
    • Exhibit 89: 3M Corp. - Overview
    • Exhibit 90: 3M Corp. - Business segments
    • Exhibit 91: 3M Corp. - Key news
    • Exhibit 92: 3M Corp. - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 93: 3M Corp. - Segment focus
  • 10.4 Aquatech International LLC
    • Exhibit 94: Aquatech International LLC - Overview
    • Exhibit 95: Aquatech International LLC - Product / Service
    • Exhibit 96: Aquatech International LLC - Key offerings
  • 10.5 Ecolab Inc.
    • Exhibit 97: Ecolab Inc. - Overview
    • Exhibit 98: Ecolab Inc. - Business segments
    • Exhibit 99: Ecolab Inc. - Key news
    • Exhibit 100: Ecolab Inc. - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 101: Ecolab Inc. - Segment focus
  • 10.6 Evoqua Water Technologies LLC
    • Exhibit 102: Evoqua Water Technologies LLC - Overview
    • Exhibit 103: Evoqua Water Technologies LLC - Business segments
    • Exhibit 104: Evoqua Water Technologies LLC - Key news
    • Exhibit 105: Evoqua Water Technologies LLC - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 106: Evoqua Water Technologies LLC - Segment focus
  • 10.7 General Electric Co.
    • Exhibit 107: General Electric Co. - Overview
    • Exhibit 108: General Electric Co. - Business segments
    • Exhibit 109: General Electric Co. - Key news
    • Exhibit 110: General Electric Co. - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 111: General Electric Co. - Segment focus
  • 10.8 Pentair Plc
    • Exhibit 112: Pentair Plc - Overview
    • Exhibit 113: Pentair Plc - Business segments
    • Exhibit 114: Pentair Plc - Key news
    • Exhibit 115: Pentair Plc - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 116: Pentair Plc - Segment focus
  • 10.9 SUEZ WTS USA Inc.
    • Exhibit 117: SUEZ WTS USA Inc. - Overview
    • Exhibit 118: SUEZ WTS USA Inc. - Product / Service
    • Exhibit 119: SUEZ WTS USA Inc. - Key offerings
  • 10.10 The Dow Chemical Co.
    • Exhibit 120: The Dow Chemical Co. - Overview
    • Exhibit 121: The Dow Chemical Co. - Business segments
    • Exhibit 122: The Dow Chemical Co. - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 123: The Dow Chemical Co. - Segment focus
  • 10.11 Veolia Environnement Group
    • Exhibit 124: Veolia Environnement Group - Overview
    • Exhibit 125: Veolia Environnement Group - Business segments
    • Exhibit 126: Veolia Environnement Group - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 127: Veolia Environnement Group - Segment focus
  • 10.12 Xylem Inc.
    • Exhibit 128: Xylem Inc. - Overview
    • Exhibit 129: Xylem Inc. - Business segments
    • Exhibit 130: Xylem Inc. - Key offerings
    • Exhibit 131: Xylem Inc. - Segment focus

11 Appendix

  • 11.1 Scope of the report
  • 11.2 Inclusions and exclusions checklist
    • Exhibit 132: Inclusions checklist
    • Exhibit 133: Exclusions checklist
  • 11.3 Currency conversion rates for US$
    • Exhibit 134: Currency conversion rates for US$
  • 11.4 Research methodology
    • Exhibit 135: Research methodology
    • Exhibit 136: Validation techniques employed for market sizing
    • Exhibit 137: Information sources
  • 11.5 List of abbreviations
    • Exhibit 138: List of abbreviations

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