Connect with us

Government

Insurance Companies Note Jump In Death Payouts Amid 40% Rise Among Prime-Age Americans

Insurance Companies Note Jump In Death Payouts Amid 40% Rise Among Prime-Age Americans

Authored by Conan Milner via The Epoch Times (emphasis ours)

Insurance companies are reporting a jump in death payouts due to a dramatic rise in the numbe

Published

on

Insurance Companies Note Jump In Death Payouts Amid 40% Rise Among Prime-Age Americans

Authored by Conan Milner via The Epoch Times (emphasis ours)

Insurance companies are reporting a jump in death payouts due to a dramatic rise in the number of deaths. The rise in the death rate is being corroborated by death certificate data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

More people are dying at younger ages and it's not because of COVID-19. But it isn't the government making a fuss about it, it's life insurance companies.(IR Stone/Shutterstock)

The death rate is up by 40 percent from pre-pandemic levels according to Scott Davison, chief executive of OneAmerica, a major insurance company based in Indianapolis. During an online news conference on Dec. 30, 2021, Davison said the change was unprecedented.

We are seeing, right now, the highest death rates we have seen in the history of this business,” he said.

OneAmerica sells life insurance to employers nationwide, and similar figures are found throughout the industry.

“The data is consistent across every player in that business,” Davison said. “And what we saw just in the third quarter—we’re seeing it continue into the fourth quarter—is that death rates are up 40 percent over what they were pre-pandemic. Just to give you an idea of how bad that is, a three-sigma or a one-in-200-year catastrophe would be a 10 percent increase over pre-pandemic. So 40 percent is just unheard of.”

This 40 percent figure doesn’t represent folks dying of old age, but is instead a reflection of deaths in working-age adults, aged 18 to 65. However, what’s responsible for the alarming spike in fatalities in this age group isn’t clear.

With all of the concern about COVID-19 lately, the contagion seems a likely choice. But according to Davison, something else is at play. He said the data coming from insurance companies—entities in the business of paying out when people die—show that the deaths being reported as COVID-19 fatalities “greatly understate” the actual deaths from working age people hit by the pandemic, as most of the claims being filed aren’t being classified as COVID-19 deaths.

“It may not all be COVID on their death certificate, but deaths are up just huge, huge numbers,” he said.

Also taking part in the news conference was Brian Tabor, president of the Indiana Hospital Association. He also noted a dramatic rise in illness from a different perspective. Tabor said hospitals across Indiana were being flooded with patients “with many different conditions.”

In October 2021, The Times of India reported that health insurers saw a “huge surge in non-COVID claims,” with the head of interventional cardiology at a Mumbai, India, hospital noting a 40 percent increase in heart problems compared to the previous six to eight months.

Ever since COVID-19 hit, the world has been bracing itself for huge numbers. Most recently in a White House press briefing on Dec. 17, 2021, President Joe Biden warned that unvaccinated Americans can look forward to a “winter of severe illness and death for yourselves, your families, and the hospitals you may soon overwhelm.”

Still, such astronomical figures emerging all of a sudden are hard to fathom. The pandemic has worn on for nearly two years, and health officials have been keeping a close eye on the death count. What could account for such a dramatic jump at the end of 2021?

[ZH: Answering this question is Epoch's Petr Svab with an in-depth analysis - buckle up]

Americans have been dying at a significantly higher rate over the past two years or so, but the COVID-19 disease tells only part of the story. Among seniors, the pandemic could explain the increase in mortality more easily than among younger people, where there’s a gap requiring further explanation.

Overall, there appear to be three distinct patterns in the data based on age:

Among those of age 0 to 17, mortality remained virtually unchanged since 2019.

Among those who were 65 or older, mortality increased in 2020, dropped in the first half of 2021, coinciding with the proliferation of the COVID-19 vaccines, and then increased in the third quarter of 2021, coinciding with the emergence of the Delta variant, which appeared more resistant to the vaccines.

Among those aged 18 to 49, mortality rose dramatically in the first half of 2020, then somewhat plateaued before increasing again in the third quarter of 2021.

The 50 to 64 age group appears to be a mix of the latter two patterns.

COVID-19 Impact

The differences between age groups become more apparent when deaths involving COVID-19 are highlighted.

Under the age of 18, COVID-related deaths barely register when visualized.

For those aged 75 and older, the novel disease more than explains any increases in mortality. For those aged 65 to 74, deaths were on the rise long before the pandemic. Excluding the COVID deaths leaves increases slightly above the previous trend.

Among those aged 18 to 65, however, there emerges the opposite phenomenon—after exclusion of COVID deaths, a significant hike in mortality remains. The non-COVID increase appears more pronounced in the younger age groups and less in the older ones.

There are several factors that would explain at least part of the excess deaths.

Drugs, Alcohol, Murder

Drug overdoses skyrocketed in 2020 with more than 20,000 more dying in the 18–64 age group than the year before. The Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) preliminary data for the first half of 2021 indicates the trend even somewhat intensified.

There are several factors that would explain at least part of the excess deaths. Drugs, Alcohol, Murder Drug overdoses skyrocketed in 2020 with more than 20,000 more dying in the 18–64 age group than the year before. The Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) preliminary data for the first half of 2021 indicates the trend even somewhat intensified.

Deaths involving alcohol—not just alcohol poisoning, but also those due to alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver and other alcohol-induced causes—have been on the rise in recent years, but the 2020 increase was particularly significant. Nearly 8,000 more died in 2020 than the year before in the 18–64 age group. The 2021 data is not yet available.

Homicide deaths increased nearly 30 percent from 2019 to 2020 in the 18–64 age group, accounting for nearly 4,000 excess deaths. Last year is shaping up to be similarly homicidal, based on CDC’s preliminary data for the first half of 2021.

With COVID-19 deaths excluded and assuming drug overdoses, alcohol, and homicide deaths continued in 2021 at a similar intensity as the year before, there was still about 50,000 excess deaths last year in the 18-64 age group.

Misclassified, Overwhelmed

The CDC and some experts argue that the excess deaths could be misclassified COVID-19 deaths as well as deaths due to lack of care because of hospitals overwhelmed with COVID patients. They point to the fact that about third of Americans die at home. Their death certificates would be probably written by attending physicians who may not test the patient for COVID-19.

The CDC issued guidance on June 15, 2020, that all people suspected of dying of COVID-19 should be tested post mortem, but it’s not clear to what degree medical practitioners are following through on it.

This explanation may be limited for several reasons.

Deaths at home indeed increased with the onset of the pandemic, from less than 32 percent in 2019 to more than 36 percent in June 2020. But then the rate dropped again, to less than 31 percent in December 2020. If people were forced to die at home because medical care wasn’t available to them, it doesn’t appear to have been widespread enough to explain the excess mortality gap.

The argument for misclassified COVID deaths usually assumes that the dying person was suffering from multiple ailments and the attending physician failed to note COVID-19 as at least a contributing factor. It’s not clear how often that applies to younger people who are generally healthier and among whom COVID-19 deaths are rarer and may stand out more.

Finally, the argument appears to use backward reasoning—assuming the excess deaths are caused by COVID-19 and then seeking supporting logic on how that could be.

Vaccines

There’s a growing group of doctors and researchers who point to the COVID-19 vaccines as a possible culprit in at least a part of the excess deaths last year. They usually point to several physiological mechanisms through which the vaccines could cause harm combined with known side effects as well as data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a database of reports of health problems that have occurred after a vaccination and may or may not have been caused by it.

VAERS reports exploded with the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccines. By Jan. 7, there were over a million reports, including more than 21,000 deaths. Previously, there would be about 40,000 reports and a few hundred deaths a year. They are largely filed by health care personnel, based on previous research.

The usual arguments against the VAERS data have been that it’s unverified and unreliable. Some researchers have pointed out, however, that the system isn’t meant to provide definitive answers, but rather early warnings. In their view, the reports have raised numerous red flags that haven’t been sufficiently investigated.

CDC Data Caveats

The latest detailed cause-of-death data available on the CDC website is for the year 2020. For 2021, CDC has been releasing some preliminary data bi-weekly, but cautions that it has a lag of 8 weeks or more as the death certificate data streams in from around the country. For this analysis, only data up until October has been used. For specific causes of death beyond COVID-19, pneumonia, and influenza, the CDC doesn’t break down the available 2021 data by age, limiting its usefulness for this analysis.

In addition, CDC’s COVID-19 mortality data that covers 2021 attributes to the virus all deaths where COVID-19 was marked on the death certificate, regardless whether it was listed as the underlying cause or as a contributing factor. Early in the pandemic, the CDC instructed medical practitioners to mark all deceased who had tested positive, and even those with COVID-like symptoms but who had not been tested, as deaths caused by COVID-19. Later in 2020, the guidance gradually changed. Untested cases were to be separated and COVID-19 was required to be at least a contributing factor to be listed on the death certificate.

In the second half of 2020, the last period with available death certificate data on this point, nearly 90 percent of deaths involving COVID-19 had the disease listed as the underlying cause of death rather than a contributing factor.

Some experts have also pointed to government policies as a possible culprit in some excess deaths. School closures and business lockdowns have led to both financial and psychological depression, some research and anecdotal reports indicate, which may have led to death in some cases. Suicide deaths, though, have been relatively stable between 2019 and June 2021, based on available data.

Death After COVID

There may be a more hidden health impact of COVID-19. A study published in December found that people hospitalized for COVID-19 had somewhere between two and three times the risk of dying in the following 12 months of something other than COVID-19 than those going to a doctor, but testing negative.

“This huge explosion of inflammation during a severe episode of COVID seems to be causing a lot of other problems,” said Arch Mainous, the lead author of the study and a vice chair for research in the Department of Community Health and Family Medicine at the University of Florida.

“It looks like there is an overall impact on your body from this biological insult,” he told The Epoch Times.

The study has several limitations. It included people only from one hospital system in Florida and as such may not fully apply to the entire U.S. population. Also, it controlled for comorbidities, but used the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), which only includes 17 general factors that aren’t specific to COVID-19. It includes age as well as issues such as history of heart attack, stroke, cancer, AIDS, cirrhosis, kidney disease, and diabetes. Mainous acknowledged that the index may be less predictive in younger patients.

Finally, the studied population as a whole had on average a particularly high risk of dying. Of the more than 13,600 people included, over 2,600 died within a year—nearly 20 percent. For comparison, Americans of age 85 or higher have about 10 percent annual mortality.

Tyler Durden Tue, 01/25/2022 - 23:15

Read More

Continue Reading

International

How Crowded Are Royal Caribbean, Carnival Cruise Ships Right Now?

Both cruise lines have raised capacities slowly. When will Royal Caribbean and Carnival hit normal?

Published

on

Both cruise lines have raised capacities slowly. When will Royal Caribbean and Carnival hit normal?

When Freedom of the Seas sailed from Miami on July 2, 2021, it marked Royal Caribbean International's (RCL) - Get Royal Caribbean Group Report return to North American sailing after being shut down since March 2020. 

That sailing has less than 1,000 people on it, mostly loyal cruisers eager to get back to sea no matter what the rules were (as well as a fair amount of company executives.

That ship can hold 4,375 passengers at full capacity, according to Ship Technology and on that July sailing, it felt empty and crew seemed to outnumber passengers. 

At night, in the British Pub, the crowd was essentially me, two other journalists, and the occasional person who wandered by. 

That made it, perhaps, too easy to get a drink, and while it was a wonderful experience, that sailing only felt normal when everyone onboard took to the upper decks to cheer sail away and celebrate the Fourth of July,

I sailed on Freedom on that July sailing, then again in September, October, November, December, and then again in May.

I sailed Odyssey of the Seas and Wonder of the Seas in between January and May. 

The crowds got progressively bigger through the fall, but even the December sailing (a three-day weekend, which in pre-pandemic times would be at or near capacity) still had a limited capacity.

Royal Caribbean steadily increased the number of people on its ships, with some slight pauses in that as new covid variants popped up and Carnival Cruise Lines (CCL) - Get Carnival Corporation Report has followed roughly the same model.   

Dukas/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

Cruise Lines Capacity Is Coming Back

How crowded will my cruise be? 

This has been a question seemingly every experienced cruiser has asked. In the summer and fall, that answer was "not at all," and later "not as much as usual," but the numbers of passengers onboard has slowly moved back to normal, even reaching it on some sailings.

Cruise lines generally don't offer a lot of comment on why they might be limiting capacity when technically they no longer have. 

Crew concerns, including not being able to onboard new crew members to allow for full sailings due to slow visa processing times and keeping rooms open fr potential covid quarantines have kept some ships below their full complement of passengers.

Demand, of course, factors in as well. Royal Caribbean CFO Naftali Holtz commented on where his company stands now during its first-quarter earnings call.

"I'd like to comment on capacity and load factor expectations over the upcoming period. We plan to restart operations on all remaining ships by the end of June. 

"We plan to operate about 10.3 million APCDs [available passenger cruise days] during the second quarter, and we expect load factors of approximately 75% to 80%," he said. 

"Our load factor expectations reflect the higher occupancy we are seeing in the Caribbean and lower expectations for repositioning voyages and early season Europe sailings."

It's clear that demand is a factor when it comes to why certain sailings are sailing with fewer passengers than others. 

Carnival has had to limit the cabins it has been selling on its United Kingdom-based Cunard line due to staffing issues.

“As you may have seen in the news, the wider impact of Covid-19 is affecting hospitality and is disrupting airlines and as such this is impacting the number of crew members we are able to get to our ships,” said the company in a statement.

“We naturally want to ensure that all guests across the fleet experience the high standards of service on board that they would expect from Cunard and which we are committed to delivering,” the company added. 

“We are therefore limiting the number of guests sailing as we build crew numbers back up."

Normal Cruise Crowds Are Coming

Once staffing issues return to normal — something that is slowly happening — the biggest concern may be whether the economy slows demand. 

Carnival CEO Arnold Donald said he expects his company to get close to normal over the summer during the cruise line's first-quarter earnings call.

"We're well on our way back to full cruise operations, with three-quarters of our capacity having resumed guest operations and a plan to return the balance of the fleet for the summer season. And while the conversation around covid-19 is greatly reduced, we still have to and are successfully actively managing," he said.

And while neither Carnival's nor Royal Caribbean's CEO said it directly, passengers sailing this summer will likely experience passenger counts in line with tradition. 

That does not mean some sailings won't have limited capacities, or sell poorly, but many will not as long as demand remains within historical norms.

 

Read More

Continue Reading

Spread & Containment

Lab, crab and robotic rehab

I was in Berkeley a couple of months back, helping TechCrunch get its proverbial ducks in a row before our first big climate event (coming in a few weeks,…

Published

on

I got previews of a number of projects I hope to share with you in the newsletter soon, but one that really caught my eye was FogROS, which was just announced as part of the latest ROS (robot operating system) rollout. Beyond a punny name that is simultaneously a reference to the cloud element (fog/cloud — not to mention the fact that the new department has killer views of San Francisco and frequent visitor, Karl) and problematic French cuisine, there’s some really compelling potential here.

I’ve been thinking about the potential impact of cloud-based processing quite a bit the last several years, independent of my writing about robots. Specifically, a number of companies (Microsoft, Amazon, Google) have been betting big on cloud gaming. What do you do when you’ve seemingly pushed a piece of hardware to its limit? If you’ve got low enough latency, you can harness remote servers to do the heavy lifting. It’s something that’s been tried for at least a decade, to varying effect.

Image Credits: ROS

Latency is, of course, a major factor in gaming, where being off by a millisecond can dramatically impact the experience. I’m not fully convinced that experience is where it ought to be quite yet, but it does seem the tech has graduated to a point where off-board processing makes practical sense for robotics. You can currently play a console game on a smartphone with one of those services, so surely we can produce smaller, lighter-weight and lower-cost robots that rely on a remote server to complete resource-intensive tasks like SLAM processing.

The initial application will focus on AWS, with plans to reach additional services like Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure. Watch this space. There are many reasons to be excited. Honestly, there’s a lot to be excited about in robotics generally right now. This was one of the more fun weeks in recent memory.

V Bionic's exoskeleton glove shown without its covering.

Image Credits: V Bionic

Let’s start with the ExoHeal robotic rehabilitation gloves. The device, created by Saudi Arabian V Bionic, nabbed this year’s Microsoft Imagine Cup. The early-stage team is part of a proud tradition of healthcare exoskeletons. In this case, it’s an attempt to rehab the hand following muscle and tendon injuries. Team leader Zain Samdani told TechCrunch:

Flexor linkage-driven movement gives us the flexibility to individually actuate different parts of each finger (phalanges) whilst keeping the device portable. We’re currently developing our production-ready prototype that utilizes a modular design to fit the hand sizes of different patients.

Image Credits: Walmart

This is the third week in a row Walmart gets a mention here. First it was funding for GreyOrange, which it partnered with in Canada. Last week we noted a big expansion of the retail giant’s deal with warehouse automation firm, Symbotic. Now it’s another big expansion of an existing deal — this time dealing with the company’s delivery ambitions.

Like Walmart’s work with robotics, drone delivery success has been…spotty, at best. Still, it’s apparently ready to put its money where its mouth is on this one, with a deal that brings DroneUp delivery to 34 sites across six U.S. states. Quoting myself here:

The retailer announced an investment in the 6-year-old startup late last year, following trial deliveries of COVID-19 testing kits. Early trials were conducted in Bentonville, Arkansas. This year, Arizona, Florida, Texas and DroneUp’s native Virginia are being added to the list. Once online, customers will be able to choose from tens of thousands of products, from Tylenol to hot dog buns, between the hours of 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.

Freigegeben für die Berichterstattung über das Unternehemn Wingcopter bis zum 25.01.2026. Mit Bitte um Urhebervermerk v.l.: Jonathan Hesselbarth, Tom Plümmer und Ansgar Kadura von Wingcopter GmbH. Image Credits: © Jonas Wresch / KfW

There are still more question marks around this stuff than anything, and I’ve long contended that drone delivery makes the most sense in remote and otherwise hard to reach areas. That’s why something like this Wingcopter deal is interesting. Over the next five years, the company plans to bring 12,000 of its fixed-wing UAVs to 49 countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. It will cover spots that have traditionally struggled with infrastructural issues that have made it difficult to deliver food and medical supplies through more traditional means.

“With the looming food crisis on the African continent triggered by the war in Ukraine, we see great potential and strong social impact that drone-delivery networks can bring to people in all the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa by getting food to where it is needed most,” CEO Tom Plümmer told TechCrunch. “Especially in remote areas with weak infrastructure and those areas that are additionally affected by droughts and other plagues, Wingcopter’s delivery drones will build an air bridge and provide food from the sky on a winch to exactly where it is needed.”

Legitimately exciting stuff, that.

Image Credits: Dyson

In more cautiously optimistic news, Dyson dropped some interesting news this week, announcing that it has been (and will continue) pumping a lot of money into robotic research. Part of the rollout includes refitting an aircraft hangar at Hullavington Airfield, a former RAF station in Chippenham, Wiltshire, England that the company purchased back in 2016.

Some numbers from the company:

Dyson is halfway through the largest engineering recruitment drive in its history. Two thousand people have joined the tech company this year, of which 50% are engineers, scientists, and coders. Dyson is supercharging its robotics ambitions, recruiting 250 robotics engineers across disciplines including computer vision, machine learning, sensors and mechatronics, and expects to hire 700 more in the robotics field over the next five years. The master plan: to create the UK’s largest, most advanced, robotics center at Hullavington Airfield and to bring the technology into our homes by the end of the decade.

The primary project highlighted is a robot arm with a number of attachments, including a vacuum and a human-like robot hand, which are designed to perform various household tasks. Dyson has some experience building robots, primarily through its vacuums, which rely on things like computer vision to autonomously navigate. Still, I say “cautiously optimistic,” because I’ve seen plenty of non-robotics companies showcase the technology as more of a vanity project. But I’m more than happy to have Dyson change my mind.

Image Credits: Hyundai

Hyundai, of course, has been quite aggressive in its own robotics dreams, including its 2020 acquisition of Boston Dynamics. The carmaker this week announced that part of its massive new $10 billion investment plans will include robotics, with a focus of actually bringing some of its far-out concepts to market.

Another week, another big round for logistics/fulfillment robotics, as Polish firm Nomagic raised $22 million to expand its offerings. The company’s primary offering is a pick and place arm that can move and sort small goods. Khosla Ventures and Almaz Capital led the round, which also featured European Investment Bank, Hoxton Ventures, Capnamic Ventures, DN Capital and Manta Ray.

Amazon Astro with periscope camera

The periscope camera pops out and extends telescopically, enabling Astro to look over obstacles and on counter tops. A very elegant design choice. Image Credits: Haje Kamps for TechCrunch

We finally got around to reviewing Amazon’s limited-edition home robot, Astro, and Haje’s feelings were…mixed:

It’s been fun to have Astro wandering about my apartment for a few days, and most of the time I seemed to use it as a roving boom box that also has Alexa capabilities. That’s cute, and all, but $1,000 would buy Alexa devices for every thinkable surface in my room and leave me with enough cash left over to cover the house in cameras. I simply continue to struggle with why Astro makes sense. But then, that’s true for any product that is trying to carve out a brand new product category.

A tiny robot crab scuttles across the frame. Image Credits: Northwestern University

And finally, a tiny robot crab from Northwestern University. The little guy can be controlled remotely using lasers and is small enough to sit on the side of a penny. “Our technology enables a variety of controlled motion modalities and can walk with an average speed of half its body length per second,” says lead researcher, Yonggang Huang. “This is very challenging to achieve at such small scales for terrestrial robots.”

Image Credits: Bryce Durbin/TechCrunch

Scuttle, don’t walk to subscribe to Actuator.

Read More

Continue Reading

Spread & Containment

Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections responsible for spreading of COVID-19 less than symptomatic infections

Based on studies published through July 2021, most SARS-CoV-2 infections were not persistently asymptomatic, and asymptomatic infections were less infectious…

Published

on

Based on studies published through July 2021, most SARS-CoV-2 infections were not persistently asymptomatic, and asymptomatic infections were less infectious than symptomatic infections. These are the conclusions of an update of a systematic review and meta-analysis publishing May 26th in the open access journal PLOS Medicine by Diana Buitrago-Garcia of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and colleagues.

Credit: Monstera, Pexels (CC0, https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)

Based on studies published through July 2021, most SARS-CoV-2 infections were not persistently asymptomatic, and asymptomatic infections were less infectious than symptomatic infections. These are the conclusions of an update of a systematic review and meta-analysis publishing May 26th in the open access journal PLOS Medicine by Diana Buitrago-Garcia of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and colleagues.

Debate about the level and risks of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections continues, with much ongoing research. Studies that assess people at just one time point can overestimate the proportion of true asymptomatic infections because those who go on to later develop symptoms are incorrectly classified as asymptomatic rather than presymptomatic. However, other studies can underestimate asymptomatic infections with research designs that are more likely to include symptomatic participants.

The new paper was an update of a living (as in, regularly updated) systematic review first published in April 2020, which includes additional, more recent studies through July 2021. 130 studies were included, with data on 28,426 people with SARS-CoV-2 across 42 countries, including 11,923 people defined as having asymptomatic infection. Because of extreme variability between included studies, the meta-analysis did not calculate a single estimate for asymptomatic infection rate, but it did estimate the inter-quartile range to be that 14–50% of infections were asymptomatic. Additionally, the researchers found that the secondary attack rate—a measure of the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 — was about two-thirds lower from people without symptoms than from those with symptoms (risk ratio 0.32, 95%CI 0.16–0.64).

“If both the proportion and transmissibility of asymptomatic infection are relatively low, people with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection should account for a smaller proportion of overall transmission than presymptomatic individuals,” the authors say, while also pointing out that “when SARS-CoV-2 community transmission levels are high, physical distancing measures and mask-wearing need to be sustained to prevent transmission from close contact with people with asymptomatic and presymptomatic infection.”

Coauthor Nicola Low adds, “The true proportion of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is still not known, and it would be misleading to rely on a single number because the 130 studies that we reviewed were so different. People with truly asymptomatic infection are, however, less infectious than those with symptomatic infection.”

#####

In your coverage, please use this URL to provide access to the freely available paper in PLOS Medicine:

http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003987  

Citation: Buitrago-Garcia D, Ipekci AM, Heron L, Imeri H, Araujo-Chaveron L, Arevalo-Rodriguez I, et al. (2022) Occurrence and transmission potential of asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: Update of a living systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 19(5): e1003987. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003987

Author Countries: Switzerland, France, Spain, Argentina, United Kingdom, Sweden, United States, Colombia

Funding: This study was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation http://www.snf.ch/en (NL: 320030_176233); the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en (NL: 101003688); the Swiss government excellence scholarship https://www.sbfi.admin.ch/sbfi/en/home/education/scholarships-and-grants/swiss-government-excellence-scholarships.html (DBG: 2019.0774) and the Swiss School of Public Health Global P3HS stipend https://ssphplus.ch/en/ (DBG). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Read More

Continue Reading

Trending