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CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS: CYDY) Under Accumulation as New President Determines Path Forward for leronlimab

CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS: CYDY) has been on the rise since a brief dip below $0.50 following the recent runup from $0.231 to a high of $1.26 per share. CytoDyn…

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CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS: CYDY) has been on the rise since a brief dip below $0.50 following the recent runup from $0.231 to a high of $1.26 per share. CytoDyn was one of the biggest runners of 2020 skyrocketing from pennies to $10 per share before the Citron short attack took the wind out of the stocks sails and the long downward trend began.  The stock hit 52-week lows earlier this year after the FDA placed a partial clinical hold on the Company’s HIV program and a full clinical hold on its COVID-19 program in the United States. The drop was further exasperated when CytoDyn elected to pause its Brazil COVID-19 trials pending results from its previously scheduled data safety monitoring committee meeting and informed investors they were in the process of reevaluating the timing of its HIV BLA resubmission. Also, the Company’s CEO and registered public accounting firm, Warren Averett LLC, both resigned. All of this has culminated in CYDY being offered at a cheap discount to prices from just a few months ago and the opportunity to buy in to Cytodyn for under $0.60 per share.   

CYDY is a highly volatile stock that ran to $10 per share in 2020 with a similar share structure. The underlying science of Leronmilab has not changed; leronlimab has demonstrated significant potential to attack a number of diseases including cancer, and HIV and leronlimab with zero side effects. leronlimab (PRO 140), is an investigational humanized IgG4 mAb that binds to CCR5, a cellular receptor that appears to play multiple roles with implications in HIV infection, tumor  metastasis, and immune signaling. leronlimab also has a lot of big believers including many well-respected scientists. Cytodyn recently raised $21.8 million in a stock offering and signed on a new President; Cyrus Arman, Ph.D. who previously held positions with a number of biotech’s most recently serving as Chief Business Officer of Nimble Therapeutics, Inc., a company focused on engineering peptides. Dr. Arman earned his MBA from the UCLA Anderson School of Management, and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience and an MS in Biomedical Engineering from the USC Keck School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate work in Biopsychology at the University of California San Diego. Upon his hiring Dr. Arman stated, “I look forward to uniting our teams and individuals in the pursuit of CytoDyn’s success through a renewed focus on the entrepreneurial spirit. Leronlimab is a unique molecule with the potential to help many individuals, particularly with unmet medical needs. We will focus on enhancing shareholder value through focused execution and refining of the path forward for leronlimab.” 

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CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS: CYDY) is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of leronlimab, an investigational humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is designed to bind to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), a protein on the surface of certain immune system cells that is believed to play a role in numerous disease processes. CytoDyn is studying leronlimab in multiple therapeutic areas, including infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmune conditions. 

CytoDyn believes in the future of precision medicine… more specificity, less side effects. The Company’s target, the CCR5 receptor, has been implicated in multiple disease processes from HIV, GvHD, NASH, stroke recovery, multiple sclerosis, COVID-19, NAFLD/NASH, to metastatic cancer. Leronlimab, our CCR5 antagonist, is a once-a-week, subcutaneous injection. One molecule with multiple opportunities. Welcome to the future of target specific, precision medicine. Welcome to CytoDyn, a biotechnology company focused on developing innovative treatments for multiple therapeutic indications. The Company’s lead candidate leronlimab (PRO 140) belongs to a new class of therapeutics called viral-entry inhibitors and is an experimental monoclonal antibody for HIV treatment. 

Cytodyn saw a significant drop on March 30 after the Company reported the US FDA placed a partial clinical hold on its HIV program and a full clinical hold on its COVID-19 program in the United States. Further, the Company elected to pause its Brazil COVID-19 trials pending results from its previously scheduled data safety monitoring committee meeting and is in the process of reevaluating the timing of its HIV BLA resubmission. This was followed by a Company webcast the very next day. The stock saw further declines after the Company’s registered public accounting firm, Warren Averett, LLC resigned, released in an 8k on April 19 

Microcapdaily first covered CYDY on February 1, 2020 when the stock was $1.50 as it was on its way to $10 per share in summer 2020. Later on in April we reported on CYDY: CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS:CYDY) has seen a spectacular rise in recent months from well under $0.50 back in December to recent highs of $3.50 per share. The stock has transformed into a volume leader regularly topping $10 million in daily trading volume and surpassing $100 million in daily dollar volume several times in recent weeks. These are heady days indead for CYDY shareholders, many of whom have been around for years supporting Nadar and co. It is easy to get excited about CYDY as coronavirus continues its deadly march forward infecting just under 2 million people as of this writing and growing fast. There is no known cure for covid-19 but several treatments have emerged and CytoDyn’s wunderdrug Leronlimab is at the top of the pack with highly positive results coming back. The story is starting to get picked up by the national media which could spell doom for the significant short position that has built up in CYDY over the past few months.

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CYDY

On July 13 CYDY announced the appointment of Dr. Cyrus Arman as President effective July 9, 2022. Dr. Arman will be responsible for determining and leading the Company’s operating strategy for the future. It is anticipated that he will advance to Chief Executive Officer and be appointed to the Board of Directors within six months. Antonio Migliarese, who had been serving as interim President since late January, in addition to CFO, will resume his previous role as CFO. 

Dr. Arman brings over 15 years of industry experience. Most recently, Dr. Arman served as Chief Business Officer for Nimble Therapeutics and was responsible for negotiating and implementing transactions, alliances, licensing agreements, and corporate strategy. Dr. Arman’s prior experience was as the Vice President of Corporate Development and Strategy at NEUVOGEN, Inc., an early-stage immuno-oncology company, where he was responsible for corporate development, business operations, and corporate strategy functions. Before NEUVOGEN, he was a director in Amgen’s Corporate Strategy group, contributing to rebuilding and running Amgen’s Global Competitive Intelligence and Strategy unit. Dr. Arman began his career as a management consultant, advising clients on complex strategic projects involving multi-billion-dollar business development investments and partnerships in the Biopharma and Diagnostics sectors. Dr. Arman also previously served as an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California and has been published in various peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Arman earned his MBA from the UCLA Anderson School of Management, and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience and an MS in Biomedical Engineering from the USC Keck School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate work in Biopsychology at the University of California San Diego. 

Tanya Urbach, Board Chair, commented, “Early in the process, Dr. Arman separated himself from the competition, diving deep into due diligence with a methodical, analytical and inspired approach. He has the intellectual capacity, experience, and character to lead CytoDyn into the future. Leveraging his unique blend of capital markets expertise, corporate governance experience, scientific knowledge and strategic thinking, Dr. Arman has the skills to competitively position the Company. The Board expects that CytoDyn will greatly and immediately benefit from Dr. Arman’s strategic ability to analyze and rank the Company’s various opportunities and potential indications, determine the clinical development path forward, and find the right partners to fund and advance the programs, thereby maximizing shareholder value. We welcome Dr. Arman and could not be more excited about his leadership of our company.” 

Cyrus Arman, Ph.D., stated, “I look forward to uniting our teams and individuals in the pursuit of CytoDyn’s success through a renewed focus on the entrepreneurial spirit. Leronlimab is a unique molecule with the potential to help many individuals, particularly with unmet medical needs. We will focus on enhancing shareholder value through focused execution and refining of the path forward for leronlimab.” 

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Currently trading at a $491 million market valuation CYDY has 812,079,586 shares outstanding with authorized now at 1.35 billion, CYDY is fully reporting OTCQB and while they are pre revenues the Company has close to $100 million in assets and about the same in debt. At current levels CYDY is worth a close look; The stock was one of the biggest runners of 2020 skyrocketing from pennies to $10 per share. Now trading for under $0.60, the underlying science has not changed; leronlimab has demonstrated significant potential to attack a number of diseases including cancer, HIV and coronavirus with zero side effects. leronlimab (PRO 140), is an investigational humanized IgG4 mAb that binds to CCR5, a cellular receptor that appears to play multiple roles with implications in HIV infection, tumor  metastasis, and immune signaling. Now that Cytodyn has completed a stock offering and brough on new CEO Cyrus Arman, Ph.D. things could be on the up and up here. With a recent low of $0.231, a high of $0.10 CYDY at $0.58 is worth a look. We will be updating on CYDY when more details emerge so make sure you are subscribed to Microcapdaily.

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Disclosure: we hold no position in CYDY either long or short and we have not been compensated for this article.

The post CytoDyn Inc (OTCMKTS: CYDY) Under Accumulation as New President Determines Path Forward for leronlimab first appeared on Micro Cap Daily.

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High fossil fuel prices mean UK cannot delay transition to low emissions steel

Steelmaking with green hydrogen is now a less expensive prospect relative to alternatives.

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Norenko Andrey/Shutterstock

Steel is essential for making many of the technologies that will end fossil fuel combustion, including electric vehicles, wind turbines and solar panels. Unfortunately, to produce a lot of steel, manufacturers need to burn a lot of fossil fuel.

Steel production accounted for 2% of the UK’s emissions in 2019 and ranks second for energy consumption among the country’s heavy industries. Roughly two-thirds of this energy comes from coal.

The blast furnaces of steelworks burn a special type called coking coal (which is converted to a hard and porous fuel known as coke) at temperatures of up to 2,000°C, producing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO₂) – around 1.8 tonnes for each tonne of steel. This method accounted for 82% of steel production in the UK in 2021, and 71% of all steel made worldwide that year.

While coal-based steelmaking can be decarbonised to an extent by capturing the CO₂, there has to be a suitable storage site nearby or sufficient demand for using that CO₂ in other industries. This is not the case for the blast furnaces in Port Talbot, Wales, which account for half of UK steel production.

Coking coal prices have more than doubled since the beginning of the pandemic and the invasion of Ukraine has disrupted supplies. In 2021, the UK imported 39% of its coking coal from Russia, with almost all of the rest coming from the US and Australia.

Another option is to use natural gas, another fossil fuel. But since 2020, gas prices have also risen considerably. These recent fuel cost hikes demand a reassessment of how steel is made.

A metallurgical plant at night with chimneys belching smoke.
High coal prices make coal-based steelmaking less attractive for producers. ArtEvent ET/Shutterstock

Steelmaking with green hydrogen (hydrogen that has been split from water using electricity generated by renewables or nuclear power) removes fossil fuels from the process altogether. As a result, it could be insulated from increases in fossil fuel prices and carbon taxes, all of which have made steelmaking with fossil fuels more expensive in recent years.

The UK steel industry is currently given a free allocation of emissions allowances, which significantly lowers the effective carbon price paid by steel producers. Our recent research shows that, if this exemption were phased out gradually, steelmaking with green hydrogen produced using wind and solar electricity would in fact be cheaper than all other options.

Green steel

Hydrogen can convert iron ore to a pure form known as sponge iron through a process known as direct reduction. This involves heating hydrogen to between 800 and 1,000°C which reacts with the oxygen in iron ore to leave pure iron and water vapour, with no carbon emissions. The sponge iron is then processed in an electric arc furnace to produce steel.

Electric arc furnaces can also recycle scrap metal, and while the UK has no direct reduction furnaces, it already has five electric arc furnaces that recycle scrap to provide 18% of the nation’s steel. If renewable electricity powered these furnaces and was used to generate the hydrogen that fuels the production of sponge iron, then total emissions from the steel industry could be zero.

A suspended cylinder spewing molten metal.
Electric arc furnaces cut out fossil fuels, but are still expensive to run. D.Alimkin/Shutterstock

The EU and UK have both committed to ending imports of Russian coal in 2022, and large producers such as Tata Steel and ArcelorMittal have already stopped using Russian commodities in their supply chains.

While high gas and electricity prices are making some industries revert to burning coal, our findings show that green hydrogen offers a cheaper alternative to steelmakers. At recent fossil fuel prices, we estimate that direct reduction steelmaking with green hydrogen could be roughly 15% cheaper than the cheapest coal-based option (including carbon capture and storage) over a typical 25-year project lifetime.

Steelmaking with green hydrogen and electric arc furnaces uses lots of electricity. So, in a recent paper, we looked at reducing industrial electricity bills by removing green levies (which raise funds to spur the deployment of renewable technology and support vulnerable customers) and energy network maintenance costs and moving them to general taxation instead.

This would put the UK’s steel industry on an equal footing with France’s and Germany’s. We found that price parity could be achieved by increasing the average income tax bill by around 68p, rising to around £5.50 if UK steel production switched entirely to direct reduction with green hydrogen.

The UK government is considering exempting industries that consume a lot of energy from paying green levies. But soaring fossil fuel prices have hiked wholesale electricity costs so much that removing them and network maintenance fees will not significantly affect bills.

Instead, steelmakers and other heavy industries could access cheap renewable electricity directly in a green power pool.

The UK cannot afford to keep coal-based steelmaking in its decarbonisation strategy and must ensure the steel industry is ready to transition to using green hydrogen fuel instead.


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Clare Richardson-Barlow is a non-resident fellow at the National Bureau of Asian Research.

Andrew Pimm and Pepa Ambrosio-Albala do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

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What Is Helicopter Money? Definition, Examples & Applications

What Is Helicopter Money?What’s a surefire way to encourage spending, and thus, spur growth? How about dropping money from the sky? As far-stretched…

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Former Fed Chair Ben Bernanke describes helicopter money as a “money-financed tax cut.”

Public DomainPictures from Pexels; Canva

What Is Helicopter Money?

What’s a surefire way to encourage spending, and thus, spur growth? How about dropping money from the sky?

As far-stretched as this idea seems, it actually has credence in schools of economic thought, particularly during times of recession or supply shocks. Helicopter money policies inject large sums into the monetary supply either through increased spending, direct cash stimulus, or a tax cut.

This policy has two goals in mind:

1. Expand the supply of money, which improves liquidity

2. Spur economic growth

Economists consider helicopter money to be an option oflast resort, after other measures, such as lowering interest rates or quantitative easing, have either failed to lift an economy out of recession or because interest rates are already as low as they can get. This conundrum is known as a liquidity trap, when the economy is at a standstill because people are hoarding their savings instead of spending.

Since the practice of helicopter money also tends to foster inflation, it typically works best during periods of deflation, when prices, along with overall monetary supply, contract without a corresponding decrease in economic output. One relevant example is the Great Depression. Bank runs resulted in a reduction in both the monetary supply as well as in the overall prices of goods and services.

It takes a whole lot to lift an economy from such dire straits, and in such cases, helicopter money can be a viable option.

Example of Helicopter Money: The COVID-19 Recession

At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the stock market crashed, and GDP nosedived, thrusting the economy into recession. While the Federal Reserve slashed interest rates and instituted a new round of quantitative easing measures, the U.S. government responded with helicopter money.

  • Under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES), the Trump administration authorized two rounds of direct-to-taxpayer stimulus payments, of $1200 and $600 per person, in 2020.
  • In addition, as part of the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), payroll loans were offered to thousands of small businesses—and many were quickly forgiven. The Federal Reserve also provided increased liquidity to banks so that they could offer loans to businesses to help them stay afloat.

Who Coined the Term Helicopter Money?

In a 1969 paper entitled “The Optimum Quantity of Money,” economist Milton Friedman coined the term “helicopter drop” as a method to increase monetary policy during times of economic stress. He wrote:

“Let us suppose now that one day a helicopter flies over [the] community and drops an additional $1,000 in bills from the sky, which is, of course, hastily collected by members of the community. Let us suppose further that everyone is convinced that this is a unique event which will never be repeated.”

The point was that the easiest way to lift an economy out of troubled times would be to give its population a direct injection of money. This would both expand the monetary supply and as well as increase the disposable income of the populace, resulting in greater consumer spending and increased economic output.

Who Made the Concept of Helicopter Money Popular?

In the 1990s, Japan was facing a deflationary crisis. Its central bank had implemented crippling rate hikes to calm its housing bubble—to disastrous economic effects.

In a 2002 speech to the National Economists Club, then-Fed Governor Ben Bernanke proposed that Japan’s central bank could have re-started the country’s economy through fiscal programs:

“A broad-based tax cut, for example, accommodated by a program of open-market purchases to alleviate any tendency for interest rates to increase, would almost certainly be an effective stimulant to consumption and hence to prices. Even if households decided not to increase consumption but instead re-balanced their portfolios by using their extra cash to acquire real and financial assets, the resulting increase in asset values would lower the cost of capital and improve the balance sheet positions of potential borrowers. A money-financed tax cut is essentially equivalent to Milton Friedman's famous "helicopter drop" of money”

However, critics interpreted Bernanke’s words as his way of authorizing indiscriminate money printing, and the moniker “Helicopter Ben” took hold.

Bernanke would go on to chair the Federal Reserve from 2006–2014, and many of his theories were put into practice during the Financial Crisis of 2007–2008 and subsequent Great Recession. In fact, President Barack Obama credited Bernanke’s leadership during the crisis with averting a second Great Depression.

Helicopter Money vs. Quantitative Easing

While helicopter money and quantitative easing are both monetary policy tools, and both increase the monetary supply, they actually have different effects on a central bank’s balance sheet.

Through quantitative easing, a central bank buys trillions of dollars’ worth of long-term securities, such as Treasury securities, corporate bonds, mortgage-backed securities, or even stocks. This increases its reserves and expands its balance sheet. These purchases are also reversible, meaning the central bank can swap out its assets if it chooses.

Helicopter money, on the other hand, involves fiscal stimulus: distributing money to the public. It has no impact on a central bank’s balance sheet. The practice of helicopter money is irreversible, which means it is permanent—and cannot be undone.

In effect, helicopter money is less a long-term economic solution than it is a “one-time” or short-term operation.

Pros of Helicopter Money

In a 2016 blog post written for the think-tank Brookings Institution, Bernanke admitted that his helicopter money reference gave him some bad PR. In fact, he said that their media relations officer, Dave Skidmore, had warned Bernanke against using the term, saying “It’s just not the sort of thing a central banker says.”

But Bernanke insisted, and the moniker stuck.

To this day, Bernanke continues to believe in the practice of helicopter money as a tool the Fed could use in response to a slowdown in the economy. His successor at the Federal Reserve, Janet Yellen, agreed, stating that helicopter money “is something that one might legitimately consider.”

Other central bankers support the concept, particularly in Europe, which suffered from debt crises that mired its economy throughout the 2000s, igniting deflationary pressures like low demand and weak lending, and made recovery exceedingly difficult.

Cons of Helicopter Money

The biggest drawback of helicopter money is the inflation it tends to ignite. And since inflation is notoriously difficult to manage, once the inflationary fires have been stoked, what’s to prevent them from growing out of control—and fostering hyperinflation? That’s what happened in countries like Argentina and Venezuela, when their central banks printed money and gave it to their governments, who in turn gave it to the people. Inflation surged.

Helicopter money also leads to weakened currencies, because as more and more money is printed, its value decreases significantly. It could also deter currency traders from making long-term investments if the practice is prolonged.

Clearly, helicopter money is not a practice a central bank should undertake lightly.

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Arsenal’s $55.9M Loss An Improvement Over Previous Fiscal Year

Arsenal took a heavy loss but saw reasons for optimism.
The post Arsenal’s $55.9M Loss An Improvement Over Previous Fiscal Year appeared first on Front…

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As a team in transition, Arsenal saw some losses in its last`fiscal year — but also saw signs of hope.

The Premier League team took an operating loss of $55.9 million in the fiscal year ending May 2022.

  • That figure was a significant improvement on last year’s $131.9 million loss.
  • The team saved around $39 million in wages compared to the previous year.
  • But broadcasting revenue dropped from $225 million to $178 million.

Arsenal benefitted from the lifting of pandemic restrictions, with matchday revenue rising by around $51.6 million to $453.7 million.

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Streak Snapped

The club failed to qualify for any European competitions in the 2020-21 season for the first time since 1994-95, which led to heavy spending on player contracts. 

“This investment recognises that the Club has not been where it wanted to be in terms of on-field competitiveness and that, as a minimum, qualification for UEFA competition needed to be regained, as a prerequisite to re-establishing a self-sufficient financial base,” the club wrote.

Arsenal credited owners Kroenke Sports & Entertainment for its willingness to invest in the team.

The move has borne fruit this season with Arsenal’s return to the Europa League, the second-tier competition to the UEFA Champions League. The team has already earned $8.4 million for its appearance there, with total potential earnings up to $22.1 million.

The post Arsenal’s $55.9M Loss An Improvement Over Previous Fiscal Year appeared first on Front Office Sports.

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