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There are more than 300 ways to work flexibly – here are four tips to make it work for you

There are so many more ways to work flexibly now.




Did you know that, according to a recent study, there are more than 300 ways to work flexibly? The list of possible flexible work practices used by an increasingly diverse and ageing workforce has grown significantly since many people were forced to work from home during COVID lockdowns.

Before the pandemic, you may have associated flexible work with things like working from home, part-time work or reduced hours. Now? You might work a compressed week or reduced hours, job share, or take flexi time or special leave, such as a sabbatical. There are also location-based forms of flexibility, like flex-place and hybrid working.

Generally speaking, a flexible work arrangement refers to any kind of schedule or work space without the typical constraints of a traditional 9-5 work arrangement in an office or other location hosted by your employer.

The recent boost in flexible working practices brings benefits for both employers and employees. When done properly, work flexibility makes lives easier for many employees, improves their job satisfaction and reduces absenteeism and commute-related stress. For employers, it increases their ability to attract, retain, and motivate employees, boosts diversity and inclusion, and is associated with lower overhead costs and even carbon emissions.

But not all flexible working arrangements are created equal. The increased autonomy that flexibility brings can blur the boundaries between work and private life. Working flexibly can result in longer working days or create the expectation of employees being available at all times, which can increase feelings of work pressure or even lead to burnout.

Our research shows that flexibility regulations and frameworks at the national level help create the “rules of the game” for flexible work arrangements, in essence ensuring that flexible work does not become (self) exploitative.

Is flexibility the new norm?

The COVID pandemic might have virtually expanded the availability of flexible work arrangements, but this does not mean that they are accessible to everyone. Our research suggests that access to flexibility continues to depend heavily on a country’s employment relations, policies, and regulations – elements that are rapidly changing in many countries.

Some countries are introducing new regulations to keep pace with the sweeping changes to post-pandemic work practices. In 2024, for example, the Employment Relations (Flexible Working) bill is likely to come into effect in the UK. It will increase the number of times an employee can request flexible working each year and reduce employers’ decision period about such applications. Collective bargaining between trade unions and employers can offer an important additional layer of flexibility and protection, above and beyond such national regulations.

Indeed, flexibility is shaped by employers’ commitment to offer and enable access to flexible working arrangements. It’s also based on their willingness to learn from people’s experiences (like during the COVID pandemic) to develop more flexible ways of working that advantage both the organisation and its employees. Of course, line managers shape real capabilities on the ground.

But even if employers are committed, in practice, flexibility is highly dependent on job characteristics. Some jobs, such as cleaning or maintenance, simply cannot be performed remotely. Other work may require set shifts, such as nursing and policing.

Societal expectations – particularly assumptions about what women and men “should do” in terms of paid work, caring responsibilities and housework – also matter when trying to make flexibility a reality. Women are often expected to use flexible arrangements to fulfil more traditional roles, like being a homemaker or primary caregiver. But the use of flexibility among men has been often interpreted as a lack of commitment to work, creating a so-called flexibility stigma.

But, if implemented well, flexible arrangements can help both men and women make work (more) compatible with other responsibilities. So what should you look for when trying to find flexible work?

1. Be flexible about flexibility

Flexibility is not a one-size-fits-all work arrangement. How attractive a given flexible work arrangement is to you likely depends on the life stage you’re at, as well as that of your family or partner (if you have one). Think about what fits and why. Yes, flexibility can be advantageous. But also be aware that society expects different things from us as men and women – remember, it’s OK to go against the flow.

2. Find out what is available to you

Access to flexible work arrangements might be regulated through your employer, a collective agreement between your union and workplace, or national law. Talk to an HR representative, your line manager or union rep about options available to you. Tell them about your particular circumstances, for example if you have an invisible disability or illness, or if you have caring responsibilities.

Woman at computer, smiling.
Finding flexibility at work can increase workplace wellbeing. JLco Julia Amaral/Shutterstock

3. Plan ahead and communicate well

Maybe you want to try a flexible work arrangement for a limited period of time. In that case, check the conditions attached. How many times a year you can request flexible working, for example, or any prerequisites (like tenure requirements) or any potential employer contribution for equipment costs and electricity/heating bills. You can usually negotiate these conditions.

Also, keep an eye out for reversibility, which means you’re allowed to return to your previous working arrangement if needed or desired.

4. Get equipped for flexible work

Lastly, get a sense of what you need to work flexibly and/or remotely. You might be cutting out commuting costs, but flexible working could lead to different work-related, out-of-pocket expenses. Many employers will cover some of these costs within reason, or your work may provide the equipment you need to work flexibly, such as a laptop.

With more than 300 types of flexible work arrangements out there, working out how to make your working life more flexible can be daunting. By being informed, planning ahead, communicating, and being flexible about flexibility, you can start to grasp the upsides and downsides of new working practices in the post-pandemic world of work.

Jana Javornik receives funding from the Marie Skłodowska-Curie COFUND Actions. She advises the EU governmental departments on gender equality, work-life policies and new ways of working, and has until recently served as Director-General of Higher Education in the Slovene government. She is affiliated with the Slovene Institute of Contemporary History and the University of Nova Gorica (SMASH: the machine learning for science and humanities postdoctoral programme).

Carla Brega's PhD trajectory at Utrecht University is funded by the European Research Council.

Mara Yerkes receives funding from the European Research Council and the Dutch Science Foundation. Alongisde her position at Utrecht University, she is affiliated with the Centre for Social Development in Africa (University of Johannesburg).

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There will soon be one million seats on this popular Amtrak route

“More people are taking the train than ever before,” says Amtrak’s Executive Vice President.



While the size of the United States makes it hard for it to compete with the inter-city train access available in places like Japan and many European countries, Amtrak trains are a very popular transportation option in certain pockets of the country — so much so that the country’s national railway company is expanding its Northeast Corridor by more than one million seats.

Related: This is what it's like to take a 19-hour train from New York to Chicago

Running from Boston all the way south to Washington, D.C., the route is one of the most popular as it passes through the most densely populated part of the country and serves as a commuter train for those who need to go between East Coast cities such as New York and Philadelphia for business.

Veronika Bondarenko captured this photo of New York’s Moynihan Train Hall. 

Veronika Bondarenko

Amtrak launches new routes, promises travelers ‘additional travel options’

Earlier this month, Amtrak announced that it was adding four additional Northeastern routes to its schedule — two more routes between New York’s Penn Station and Union Station in Washington, D.C. on the weekend, a new early-morning weekday route between New York and Philadelphia’s William H. Gray III 30th Street Station and a weekend route between Philadelphia and Boston’s South Station.

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According to Amtrak, these additions will increase Northeast Corridor’s service by 20% on the weekdays and 10% on the weekends for a total of one million additional seats when counted by how many will ride the corridor over the year.

“More people are taking the train than ever before and we’re proud to offer our customers additional travel options when they ride with us on the Northeast Regional,” Amtrak Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer Eliot Hamlisch said in a statement on the new routes. “The Northeast Regional gets you where you want to go comfortably, conveniently and sustainably as you breeze past traffic on I-95 for a more enjoyable travel experience.”

Here are some of the other Amtrak changes you can expect to see

Amtrak also said that, in the 2023 financial year, the Northeast Corridor had nearly 9.2 million riders — 8% more than it had pre-pandemic and a 29% increase from 2022. The higher demand, particularly during both off-peak hours and the time when many business travelers use to get to work, is pushing Amtrak to invest into this corridor in particular.

To reach more customers, Amtrak has also made several changes to both its routes and pricing system. In the fall of 2023, it introduced a type of new “Night Owl Fare” — if traveling during very late or very early hours, one can go between cities like New York and Philadelphia or Philadelphia and Washington. D.C. for $5 to $15.

As travel on the same routes during peak hours can reach as much as $300, this was a deliberate move to reach those who have the flexibility of time and might have otherwise preferred more affordable methods of transportation such as the bus. After seeing strong uptake, Amtrak added this type of fare to more Boston routes.

The largest distances, such as the ones between Boston and New York or New York and Washington, are available at the lowest rate for $20.

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The next pandemic? It’s already here for Earth’s wildlife

Bird flu is decimating species already threatened by climate change and habitat loss.

I am a conservation biologist who studies emerging infectious diseases. When people ask me what I think the next pandemic will be I often say that we are in the midst of one – it’s just afflicting a great many species more than ours.

I am referring to the highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1), otherwise known as bird flu, which has killed millions of birds and unknown numbers of mammals, particularly during the past three years.

This is the strain that emerged in domestic geese in China in 1997 and quickly jumped to humans in south-east Asia with a mortality rate of around 40-50%. My research group encountered the virus when it killed a mammal, an endangered Owston’s palm civet, in a captive breeding programme in Cuc Phuong National Park Vietnam in 2005.

How these animals caught bird flu was never confirmed. Their diet is mainly earthworms, so they had not been infected by eating diseased poultry like many captive tigers in the region.

This discovery prompted us to collate all confirmed reports of fatal infection with bird flu to assess just how broad a threat to wildlife this virus might pose.

This is how a newly discovered virus in Chinese poultry came to threaten so much of the world’s biodiversity.

H5N1 originated on a Chinese poultry farm in 1997. ChameleonsEye/Shutterstock

The first signs

Until December 2005, most confirmed infections had been found in a few zoos and rescue centres in Thailand and Cambodia. Our analysis in 2006 showed that nearly half (48%) of all the different groups of birds (known to taxonomists as “orders”) contained a species in which a fatal infection of bird flu had been reported. These 13 orders comprised 84% of all bird species.

We reasoned 20 years ago that the strains of H5N1 circulating were probably highly pathogenic to all bird orders. We also showed that the list of confirmed infected species included those that were globally threatened and that important habitats, such as Vietnam’s Mekong delta, lay close to reported poultry outbreaks.

Mammals known to be susceptible to bird flu during the early 2000s included primates, rodents, pigs and rabbits. Large carnivores such as Bengal tigers and clouded leopards were reported to have been killed, as well as domestic cats.

Our 2006 paper showed the ease with which this virus crossed species barriers and suggested it might one day produce a pandemic-scale threat to global biodiversity.

Unfortunately, our warnings were correct.

A roving sickness

Two decades on, bird flu is killing species from the high Arctic to mainland Antarctica.

In the past couple of years, bird flu has spread rapidly across Europe and infiltrated North and South America, killing millions of poultry and a variety of bird and mammal species. A recent paper found that 26 countries have reported at least 48 mammal species that have died from the virus since 2020, when the latest increase in reported infections started.

Not even the ocean is safe. Since 2020, 13 species of aquatic mammal have succumbed, including American sea lions, porpoises and dolphins, often dying in their thousands in South America. A wide range of scavenging and predatory mammals that live on land are now also confirmed to be susceptible, including mountain lions, lynx, brown, black and polar bears.

The UK alone has lost over 75% of its great skuas and seen a 25% decline in northern gannets. Recent declines in sandwich terns (35%) and common terns (42%) were also largely driven by the virus.

Scientists haven’t managed to completely sequence the virus in all affected species. Research and continuous surveillance could tell us how adaptable it ultimately becomes, and whether it can jump to even more species. We know it can already infect humans – one or more genetic mutations may make it more infectious.

At the crossroads

Between January 1 2003 and December 21 2023, 882 cases of human infection with the H5N1 virus were reported from 23 countries, of which 461 (52%) were fatal.

Of these fatal cases, more than half were in Vietnam, China, Cambodia and Laos. Poultry-to-human infections were first recorded in Cambodia in December 2003. Intermittent cases were reported until 2014, followed by a gap until 2023, yielding 41 deaths from 64 cases. The subtype of H5N1 virus responsible has been detected in poultry in Cambodia since 2014. In the early 2000s, the H5N1 virus circulating had a high human mortality rate, so it is worrying that we are now starting to see people dying after contact with poultry again.

It’s not just H5 subtypes of bird flu that concern humans. The H10N1 virus was originally isolated from wild birds in South Korea, but has also been reported in samples from China and Mongolia.

Recent research found that these particular virus subtypes may be able to jump to humans after they were found to be pathogenic in laboratory mice and ferrets. The first person who was confirmed to be infected with H10N5 died in China on January 27 2024, but this patient was also suffering from seasonal flu (H3N2). They had been exposed to live poultry which also tested positive for H10N5.

Species already threatened with extinction are among those which have died due to bird flu in the past three years. The first deaths from the virus in mainland Antarctica have just been confirmed in skuas, highlighting a looming threat to penguin colonies whose eggs and chicks skuas prey on. Humboldt penguins have already been killed by the virus in Chile.

A colony of king penguins.
Remote penguin colonies are already threatened by climate change. AndreAnita/Shutterstock

How can we stem this tsunami of H5N1 and other avian influenzas? Completely overhaul poultry production on a global scale. Make farms self-sufficient in rearing eggs and chicks instead of exporting them internationally. The trend towards megafarms containing over a million birds must be stopped in its tracks.

To prevent the worst outcomes for this virus, we must revisit its primary source: the incubator of intensive poultry farms.

Diana Bell does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

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This is the biggest money mistake you’re making during travel

A retail expert talks of some common money mistakes travelers make on their trips.



Travel is expensive. Despite the explosion of travel demand in the two years since the world opened up from the pandemic, survey after survey shows that financial reasons are the biggest factor keeping some from taking their desired trips.

Airfare, accommodation as well as food and entertainment during the trip have all outpaced inflation over the last four years.

Related: This is why we're still spending an insane amount of money on travel

But while there are multiple tricks and “travel hacks” for finding cheaper plane tickets and accommodation, the biggest financial mistake that leads to blown travel budgets is much smaller and more insidious.

A traveler watches a plane takeoff at an airport gate.

Jeshoots on Unsplash

This is what you should (and shouldn’t) spend your money on while abroad

“When it comes to traveling, it's hard to resist buying items so you can have a piece of that memory at home,” Kristen Gall, a retail expert who heads the financial planning section at points-back platform Rakuten, told Travel + Leisure in an interview. “However, it's important to remember that you don't need every souvenir that catches your eye.”

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According to Gall, souvenirs not only have a tendency to add up in price but also weight which can in turn require one to pay for extra weight or even another suitcase at the airport — over the last two months, airlines like Delta  (DAL) , American Airlines  (AAL)  and JetBlue Airways  (JBLU)  have all followed each other in increasing baggage prices to in some cases as much as $60 for a first bag and $100 for a second one.

While such extras may not seem like a lot compared to the thousands one might have spent on the hotel and ticket, they all have what is sometimes known as a “coffee” or “takeout effect” in which small expenses can lead one to overspend by a large amount.

‘Save up for one special thing rather than a bunch of trinkets…’

“When traveling abroad, I recommend only purchasing items that you can't get back at home, or that are small enough to not impact your luggage weight,” Gall said. “If you’re set on bringing home a souvenir, save up for one special thing, rather than wasting your money on a bunch of trinkets you may not think twice about once you return home.”

Along with the immediate costs, there is also the risk of purchasing things that go to waste when returning home from an international vacation. Alcohol is subject to airlines’ liquid rules while certain types of foods, particularly meat and other animal products, can be confiscated by customs. 

While one incident of losing an expensive bottle of liquor or cheese brought back from a country like France will often make travelers forever careful, those who travel internationally less frequently will often be unaware of specific rules and be forced to part with something they spent money on at the airport.

“It's important to keep in mind that you're going to have to travel back with everything you purchased,” Gall continued. “[…] Be careful when buying food or wine, as it may not make it through customs. Foods like chocolate are typically fine, but items like meat and produce are likely prohibited to come back into the country.

Related: Veteran fund manager picks favorite stocks for 2024

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