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What Is a Fed Put? How Does It Affect Investors?

What Is a Fed Put?The main goal of the Fed, or the U.S. Federal Reserve, is to maintain a healthy U.S. economy through stable prices and high employment….



Fed put, defined as the Fed’s intervention in preventing catastrophic market declines, is a Wall Street buzzword.

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What Is a Fed Put?

The main goal of the Fed, or the U.S. Federal Reserve, is to maintain a healthy U.S. economy through stable prices and high employment. It does this through measures to stimulate growth, lending, and business expansion, by lowering the Fed Funds Rates, a target rate for banks that drives short- and long-term interest rates throughout financial systems.

From time to time, the Fed also undertakes efforts to add liquidity to the markets by purchasing trillions of dollars of U.S. Treasuries, a practice known as quantitative easing. During bear markets, when prices are rising, unemployment is high, and inflation must be controlled, the Fed tightens the monetary supply through efforts like quantitative tightening, when the Treasuries it bought reach maturity and are erased from its balance sheets.

Much ink has been spilled deciphering the Fed’s actions; nothing they do goes unnoticed. Analysts routinely debate the intrinsic role of the Federal Reserve—specifically what they should and shouldn’t do to regulate financial markets. Those who subscribe to economic theories like the efficient market hypothesis believe that the markets are self-regulating, and that the Fed shouldn’t meddle. Members of the Federal Reserve, on the other hand, believe their role is to make sure the markets don’t tailspin out of control; their careful intervention helps avoid catastrophes like the 1929 stock market crash.

How Is a Fed Put Related to a Put Option?

A Fed put is analogous with put contracts in options investing. A put option is a contract that gives its buyer the right to sell shares of a particular company’s common stock for a set price (the strike price) on or before the date of the contract’s expiration. A put contract can help protect its buyer from declines in the price of the stock they own beyond the strike price of the contract. In a similar way, a Fed put ensures investors that Fed policy will prevent financial markets from crippling declines.

But when investors start to expect that the Fed will come to the stock market’s aid and bail it out in choppy waters, they become prone to taking more risks. As long as the Fed injects liquidity, they reason, there will be a safety net within which to operate. In this type of environment, investors feel more comfortable speculating in riskier assets, like small-cap technology stocks or cryptocurrencies, but a consequence is that asset bubbles, or pockets or sectors of overvaluation, can form.

What Are Some Examples of Fed Puts?

Some believe the Fed steps in with interest rate cuts whenever the stock market enters a bear market, but in a widely circulated 2008 paper called “Market Bailouts and the Fed Put,” President of the Fed Bank of St. Louis, William Poole, dispelled that myth, at least historically speaking. He detailed how, in the period between 1950 and 2006, there were 21 stock declines of 10% or greater, but within three months of each decline, the Fed had either held rates steady or increased them more than half the time (12 instances).

However, what is clear is that in instances of stock market crashes, which are defined as a 10% drop in a stock market index in a matter of days, the Fed does step in with added liquidity.

Here are a few examples:

  • After the Black Monday stock market crash of 1987, the Dow fell over 22% in one day. The Federal Reserve, under the helm of newly appointed President Alan Greenspan, issued a one sentence response: “The Federal Reserve, consistent with its responsibilities as the nation’s central bank, affirmed today its readiness to serve as a source of liquidity to support the economic and financial system.” It then increased loans of Federal Funds by 60% and lowered interest rates, specifically, the Fed Funds rate, by 100 points from 7.5% in October 1987 to 6.5% in February 1988. As a result of Greenspan’s efforts, the term Fed put is also synonymous with the term Greenspan put.
  • The 2007–2008 Financial Crisis, which was fueled by the implosion of U.S. mortgage-backed securities, saw the S&P 500 fall 20% in one week in October 2008. In response, the Federal Reserve lowered its target Fed Funds rate from 4.5% at the end of 2007 to between 0% to 0.25% by the end of 2008.
  • At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Dow fell over 12% in one day, on March 16, 2020. In response, the Fed again cut the Fed Funds rate to 0% from a previous range of 1% to 1.5% and announced a $700 billion round of quantitative easing measures.

How Does the Fed Increase Liquidity in the Market?

The Fed sets monetary policy by managing interest rates at its FOMC meetings. People view lower interest rates positively because when the Fed cuts rates, it becomes easier for homeowners, for example, to get a mortgage, or a business to buy property to build a new production factory, because borrowers will owe their banks less money in interest. The higher the rate of interest, the larger a total sum a borrower will owe their lender, and vice versa.

The Fed also increases liquidity through quantitative easing measures. When it purchases trillions of dollars of Treasuries, mortgage-backed securities, or corporate bonds, the Fed drives down long-term interest rates by raising asset prices, or the value of the leftover securities it did not purchase. Doing so also increases its balance sheet, which means it requires banks to keep less reserves on hand, which in turn makes it easier for banks to lend to one another, as well as to encourage lending among consumers.

In fact, President of the Fed Bank of St. Louis, William Poole, believed that had the Fed stepped in with more expansive monetary policy in the 1930s, it could have prevented many businesses and households from declaring bankruptcy.

How Is a Fed Put Different from a Bailout?

A bailout is an emergency injection of money into a failing company to prevent it from going under. The money could come from a government, another business, or an individual. The term bailout has a pejorative connotation, implying that the company “should have known better” or acted with more caution to avoid such dire straits.

Fed President Poole was quick to point out that the Fed’s assistance should not be considered a bailout. “The Federal Reserve has no funds and no authority to provide capital or guarantees to firms to provide a bailout in the traditional sense,” he wrote. “The Fed cannot even bail out banks. The Fed can make loans to banks, but only loans that are fully secured by good collateral and only to banks that are well capitalized. The Fed can lend to weak banks requiring emergency assistance to prevent immediate collapse, but again only to those with adequate collateral.”

But the Fed needs to be careful its actions don’t inadvertently foster dependency. There is another phenomenon that’s known to happen when the Fed ends its infusion of liquidity—the markets usually experience a temporary downturn, called a taper tantrum. And sometimes, it actually takes another round of quantitative easing to get the markets to settle back down again.

Will There Be a Fed Put in 2022?’s Martin Baccardax believes stocks are sinking as investors digest the fact that the Fed’s tightening its focus on fighting inflation—which spells more rate hikes in 2022.

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Steps to building a more patient-centric industry

Lack of access, strict regulations, and demanding schedules have made it extremely difficult for patients to participate in
The post Steps to building…



Lack of access, strict regulations, and demanding schedules have made it extremely difficult for patients to participate in clinical trials. A 2018 NIH survey found that patients felt clinical trial participation to be inconvenient and burdensome, and nearly half (49.0%) said it disrupted their daily routine. In 2021, a CISCRIP Perceptions and Insights Study reported more disruption to daily routines compared to previous years, citing length of visits, travel, and diagnostic tests as top burdens.

To ease this burden, the life sciences industry has been searching for ways to make clinical trials more accessible for patients and to drive participation numbers, increase participant diversity, and improve overall patient experience. For many patients, this change starts with choice.

A recent survey of clinical trial professionals found that more than two-thirds of respondents (61%) believe giving patients choice will have a positive impact on clinical research, and well over half (58%) said that their organisations plan to give patients the option to choose how they participate in clinical trials moving forward. Some examples of these choices can include video visits, phone visits, and remote monitoring.

As the industry focuses on creating a more holistic, inclusive patient experience, here are key steps to consider in order to help bridge the gap between clinical research and the patient experience.

Build a base in the community

According to the FDA’s 2020 Drug Trials Snapshot Report, only 8% of clinical trial participants are Black or African American, as compared to nearly 14% of the US population. The fact is, many minorities never learn about vital clinical trials in play, or that they’re eligible to participate. Subsequently, they are excluded, creating an evident gap in participants, and subsequently needed data on how treatments respond across different demographics of people.

Creating a broader, more inclusive patient experience starts with building a network of advocates who can help organisers meet patients where they are located and educate them about the availability and value of the trials. Initially, there needs to be a more proactive and sustained nationwide outreach effort to raise clinical trial awareness within minority communities.

It’s also important to partner with trusted people within minority communities, such as religious and government leaders that have the credibility needed to share clinical trial information to counter scepticism. If sponsors can partner with patient-advocacy groups to inform design, recruitment, follow-up, and even data collection (particularly for patient-reported outcomes), it will help to keep patients engaged longer and potentially derive higher quality data sets that can lead to better patient outcomes over the long run.

Embrace technology to expand reach

Technology – especially related to automation and the cloud – can help create a more flexible clinical trial model, thereby making it easier for patients to participate. Digital tools used in decentralised trials, remote enrolment tools, consent forms, wearables, and remote devices, as well as data capture, can help to expand overall access to clinical trials. For example, with remote monitoring, doctors and trial administrators can analyse all the data coming in and, if there’s a problem, they can act more quickly and respond back to the patient through a mobile device such as a smartphone.

Cloud platforms can open two-way communication channels for patients, doctors, and trial administrators to talk and share data, essentially in real-time. Some early examples of these capabilities were part of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) v-safe program, developed by Oracle, which is used to track the effects of the COVID-19 vaccines through voluntary, scheduled survey prompts, and to remind people about boosters. Today, capabilities like this are being extended so that trial data from wearable devices and home-monitoring systems can be communicated directly to trial sites.

A new solution

One significant roadblock to clinical trial inclusion of minority groups has been location and transportation. Many potential participants lack transportation to and from clinical sites, and some trials are only held in large city hospitals, instead of smaller community hospitals that participants can sometimes access more easily. Thanks to decentralised trials and technology that collects data remotely, people from anywhere can participate.

One approach the industry has been exploring is to utilise community retail pharmacies as a central location for people to learn about and participate in clinical trials. By collaborating with pharmacy retailers, sponsors will have more opportunities for patient recruitment because they can offer patients the convenience and comfort of visiting familiar community sites.

For example, CVS and Walgreens have instituted flexible clinical trial models that combine patient insights, technology capabilities, and in-person and virtual-care options to engage broader and more diverse communities. The result is a much more expansive pool of participants and potentially much better information about populations where the drug is effective, and other populations where it might not be effective.

Keep it simple

There’s a notion that because the healthcare and life sciences industries are very complex, the systems that support them have to be equally complex. In fact, the opposite is true. Easier-to-use systems will increase participation rates, and we will have better outcomes as a result. With so many technology advancements at its disposal, the industry must find a way to bridge the divide between patient experience and clinical research. The patient journey must be a positive one, so that they will encourage others to participate.

Imagine, clinical research as an accessible care option to anyone. Technology has given us the opportunity to make this goal a reality. But as an industry, we must innovate to bring new experiences to market and improve the clinical research ecosystem for patients, healthcare professionals, sponsors, and regulators.

About the author

Katherine (Kathy) Vandebelt is global head of clinical innovation at Oracle Health Sciences. With over thirty years of experience in clinical research working in different geographies and across various TA, Kathy has worked with various organisations to advance their clinical operations and business processes to a better operating model. She believes patients are the most important constituent in clinical development and provide the necessary information to assess the safety and efficacy of new medicines. She strives to introduce new experiences and make the clinical research ecosystem better for patients, healthcare professionals, sponsors, and regulators using the power of technology.

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Meta ‘powering through’ with Metaverse plans despite doubts — Zuckerberg

Billions of dollars have been poured into Meta’s virtual world with little return on investment, but CEO Mark Zuckerberg says he is holding fast.



Billions of dollars have been poured into Meta’s virtual world with little return on investment, but CEO Mark Zuckerberg says he is holding fast.

Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg is still hopeful about the company’s Metaverse plans regardless of the billions of dollars it’s sucking up from the company, claiming “someone has to build that.”

Appearing remotely for an interview at the Nov. 30 DealBook Summit in New York, Zuckerberg was asked his thoughts on whether the tech giants’ Metaverse play was still viable given its cost and the doubts cast over the platform, answering:

“I think things look very different on a ten-year time horizon than the zone that we're in for the next few years [...] I'm still completely optimistic about all the things that we've been optimistic about.”

He added part of “seeing things through” in the longer term was “powering through” the doubts held about its ambitions.

Meta's latest earnings, released on Oct. 26, revealed the largest-ever quarterly loss in its metaverse-building arm Reality Labs dating back to the fourth quarter of 2020. Zuckerberg’s virtual reality has cost $9.44 billion in 2022, closing in on the over $10 billion in losses recorded for 2021.

On the earnings call at the time Zuckerberg was unfazed by the cost, calling its metaverse the “next computing platform.” He doubled down on this claim at DealBook:

“We're not going to be here in the 2030s communicating and using computing devices that are exactly the same as what we have today, and someone has to build that and invest in it and believe in it.”

However, Zuckerberg admitted that the plans have come at a cost, Meta had to lay off 11,000 employees on Nov. 9 and the CEO said it had “planned out massive investments,” including into hardware to support its metaverse.

He said the company “thought that the economy and the business were going to go in in a certain direction” based on positive indicators relating to e-commerce businesses during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. “Obviously it hasn't turned out that way,” Zuckerberg added.

“Our kind of operational focus over the next few years is going to be on efficiency and discipline and rigor and kind of just operating in a much tighter environment.”

Despite the apparent focus from Meta to build its metaverse, Zuckerberg claimed 80% of company investments are funneled into its flagship social media platforms and will continue that way “for quite some time.”

Investments in Reality Labs are “less than 20%” at least “until the Metaverse becomes a larger thing” he said.

Related: The metaverse is happening without Meta's permission

Of the 20% invested in Reality Labs, Zuckerberg said 40% of it goes toward its Virtual Reality (VR) headsets with the other “half or more” building what he considers “the long-term most important form factor [...] Normal-looking glasses that can put holograms in the world.”

Zuck takes bite at Apple

Zuckerberg also took a few jabs at its peer tech company Apple regarding its restrictive App Store policies, the likes of which have placed restrictions on crypto exchanges and nonfungible token (NFT) marketplaces, saying:

“I do think Apple has sort of singled themselves out as the only company that is trying to control unilaterally what apps get on a device and I don't think that's a sustainable or good place to be.”

He pointed to other computing platforms such as Windows and Android which are not as restrictive and even allow other app markets and sideloading — the use of third-party software or apps.

He added its been Meta’s commitment to allow sideloading with its existing VR units and upcoming Augmented Reality (AR) units and hoped the future Metaverse platforms were also open in such a manner.

“I do think it is it is problematic for one company to be able to control what kind of app experiences get on the device.”

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Nifty News: Porsche 911 NFTs, BMW files Web3 trademarks, Baby Shark’s NFT game and more…

BMW and Porsche have both recently ramped up their own Web3 plays, while Baby Shark is dipping into the blockchain gaming sector, but just for kids.



BMW and Porsche have both recently ramped up their own Web3 plays, while Baby Shark is dipping into the blockchain gaming sector, but just for kids.

Porsche to launch 7,500 NFTs for use in a ‘virtual world’

German luxury car manufacturer Porsche has suggested it will be significantly ramping up its Web3 efforts after unveiling an upcoming NFT project consisting of 7,500 customizable tokenized vehicles.

In a Nov. 29 announcement, Porsche stated that the NFTs will be launched in January, and users will be able to customize various aspects of the cars in relation to performance and appearance.

The NFT art itself is being designed by designer and 3D artist Patrick Vogel, with all pieces revolving around the famous Porsche 911 model.

Notably these virtual assets will be designed in Epic Games’ Unreal Engine 5, suggesting that gaming integrations are afoot.

NFT car designs: Porsche

The company gave a sneak peek into the project at the Art Basel conference in Miami on Nov. 30. While specific details have not been mentioned, the company noted that owners will be able to use the cars in the “virtual world,” most likely meaning some sort of Metaverse.

More broadly, Porsche suggested that it is looking to significantly ramp up its exposure to Web3 moving forward, with the announcement noting that:

“Digital art is just one aspect of Porsche’s Web3 strategy. The sports car manufacturer is working to integrate the potential of blockchain technology into existing and future processes and solutions.”

Porsche previously had a hand in launching soccer-themed NFT collectibles in June 2021 as part of a project called Fanzone, but now appears to be taking the tokenization of its cars more seriously.

BMW to get Web3 trademarks

Speaking of German luxury car manufacturers, BMW has reportedly applied to trademark its logo in relation to a host of Web3 products and services.

The move was highlighted by USPTO licensed trademark attorney Mike Kondoudis, who frequently shares news regarding Web3 trademark applications in the U.S. from major companies.

BMW outlined intentions for its logo to span across collectibles such as virtual clothing, footwear, headwear and vehicles, while also indicating plans for downloadable virtual goods such as online environments and games.

Baby Shark’s Web3 arc

Content from Pinkfong’s massively popular children’s song/music video Baby Shark is set to be tokenized as part of a family-focused blockchain game.

Pinkfong reportedly penned a licensing agreement with Toekenz Collectibles to create and issue Baby Shark characters in a child safe digital environment.

Baby Shark NFT partnership: Toekenz

Toekenz Collectibles is an NFT platform targeted at children aged 12 and under, and the focus of the game is to educate kids aged five to nine “about the trading economy of digital collectibles.”

The kids will also be able to customize the NFT art to their own liking, and even participate in a Tokenz DAO where they “can exercise democratic decision-making.”

This is not Pinkfong’s first dip into NFTs, Cointelegraph previously reported that the South Korea-based company launched a series of limited editions Baby Shark NFTs in December last year.

Related: Two Bored Apes sell for $1M each: Nifty Newsletter, Nov. 23–29

Deadmau5 rolling out music metaverse

A Web3 startup co-founded by popular crypto-friendly DJ Deadmau5 (Joel Zimmerman) is gearing up for the launch of a music and gaming focused Metaverse platform.

Announced at the Art Basel event on Nov. 29, the start-up known as Pixelynx stated that the Polygon-based platform will launch this week, and kick things off with an Augmented Reality (AR) scavenger hunt set on Miami Beach.

The firm’s CEO and co-founder Inder Phull described the AR scavenger hunt as a “Rock Band meets Pokémon Go experience,” in which virtual gaming features are merged with real locations on maps via smart devices.

Users who hold Deadmau5’s Droplet NFTs will gain early access to Pixelynx’s metaverse with the platform aiming to provide a host of virtual experiences for fans of particular musicians and artists.

More Nifty News

NFTs depicting the ongoing protests in China against the country’s tough zero-tolerance COVID-19 policy have found their way to the NFT marketplace OpenSea at the tail end of November.

On Nov. 30, decentralized exchange (DEX) Uniswap announced that users can now trade NFTs on its native protocol. The function will initially feature NFT collections for sale on platforms including OpenSea, X2Y2, LooksRare, Sudoswap, Larva Labs, X2Y2, Foundation, NFT20, and NFTX.

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