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Six long COVID subtypes identified at The Jackson Laboratory

Six long COVID subtypes identified at The Jackson Laboratory
PR Newswire
FARMINGTON, Conn., Jan. 27, 2023

FARMINGTON, Conn., Jan. 27, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — Over the past three years, it has become clear that, for many people, the effects of SARS-CoV…

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Six long COVID subtypes identified at The Jackson Laboratory

PR Newswire

FARMINGTON, Conn., Jan. 27, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Over the past three years, it has become clear that, for many people, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection persist long after an initial case of COVID-19 wanes.

Like primary COVID-19, the affliction, known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) or long COVID, has highly variable duration, symptoms and severity. And as data accumulates, it appears that long COVID is a serious public health problem that will not go away any time soon.

There is still no widely accepted case definition for long COVID, but it generally refers to a range of persistent or new symptoms that remain present more than four weeks after the initial infection. In part because of the significant case-by-case disparities, it took the clinical community time to recognize it as a specific condition, but a code was implemented ("Post-COVID-19 condition") for diagnosis on October 1, 2021. The code allows patients to be formally diagnosed with long COVID by a physician and the diagnosis to be entered into electronic health record (EHR) systems.

Jackson Laboratory Professor Peter Robinson, M.D., M.Sc., and Predoctoral Associate Ben Coleman have been investigating long COVID using EHR data from healthcare systems across the United States as part of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). With the introduction of the diagnostic code, they and colleagues were able to analyze clinical data of patients diagnosed with long COVID to better define its characteristics. They also sought to determine whether it was possible to identify and define subtypes within the as-yet poorly understood umbrella diagnosis. Their findings, presented in "Generalisable long COVID subtypes: Findings from the NIH N3C and RECOVER programmes" and published in eBioMedicine, indicate that long COVID does indeed manifest in distinct subtypes that can help stratify patients and inform treatment strategies.

Long COVID subtypes

In all, Robinson and the team were able to obtain data for 20,532 patients who had received an official Post-COVID-19 condition diagnosis, from 38 data partners. While that number is very low—data for more than 5.4 million COVID-19 patients were in the N3C platform database by August 2022—the cohort is extremely important for long COVID research given that they all received diagnoses from a physician and they all have associated clinical data. The researchers defined long COVID as presenting 28 days after the earliest COVID-19 date noted for outpatients and 28 days after the end of hospitalization for inpatients.

The team mapped the clinical findings to computable terms contained in the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), a standard framework for describing human traits that was developed and is maintained by the Robinson lab. This allowed the researchers to analyze the data across the entire cohort. After adapting a computational algorithm known as Phenomizer, they were able to determine a similarity metric between pairs of patients. Further calculations revealed the grouping of patients into six distinct clusters, each representing a different long COVID subtype. The subtypes are defined by the predominant clinical manifestations:

  1. Multi-system + lab (associated with severe initial infection and a high frequency of multiple symptoms: neuropsychiatric, pulmonary, constitutional (e.g., general fatigue), cardiovascular, and vertigo as well as lab test abnormalities); 
  2. Hypoxemia and cough; 
  3. Neuropsychiatric (headache, insomnia, depression, movement abnormalities); 
  4. Cardiovascular; 
  5. Pain/fatigue; and 
  6. Multi-system-pain (similar to 1 without the lab results). 

Each cluster has different age, gender and race frequencies associated with it, as well as different prior comorbidities and conditions.

Precision long COVID treatment

The findings underscore the possibility that the mechanisms of long COVID may vary among individuals based on a collection of baseline risk factors. In light of this, clinical research studies, such as the NIH's "Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER)," will likely need to define sub-cohorts in their efforts to identify candidate therapeutics. And moving forward, stratifying long COVID patients will be important for effective treatment, as it is doubtful that any single approach will generalize well across the subtypes. 

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SOURCE The Jackson Laboratory

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VanEck to donate 10% of profits from Ether ETF to core developers

The Protocol Guild, a team of over 150 Ethereum core developers, will be the beneficiary. VanEck argues that asset managers should give back some Ether…

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The Protocol Guild, a team of over 150 Ethereum core developers, will be the beneficiary. VanEck argues that asset managers should give back some Ether ETF proceeds to the community.

Global asset manager VanEck will donate 10% of all profits from its upcoming Ether futures exchange-traded fund (ETF) to Ethereum core developers for 10 years, the company announced on X (formerly Twitter) on Sept. 29. 

The beneficiary will be the Protocol Guild, a group of over 150 developers maintaining Ethereum’s core technology. According to VanEck, it’s only fair for asset managers to return part of their proceeds to the community building the crypto protocol. It stated:

“If TradFi stands to gain from the efforts of Ethereum’s core contributors, it makes sense that we also give back to their work. We urge other asset managers/ETF issuers to consider also giving back in the same way.“

With this move, VanEck joins other crypto-native communities supporting the Ethereum network, including Lido Finance, Uniswap, Arbitrum, Optimism, ENS Domains, MolochDAO and Nouns DAO.

According to a public dashboard tracking donations sent to the Guild’s mainnet, 4,846 contributions have generated over $12 million in donations. Funds are then distributed among its members according to a weighted ratio based on their contribution periods.

The network core developers are reportedly working on Ethereum Improvement Proposal EIP-4844 (Proto-Danksharding). The upgrade will introduce a new kind of transaction type to Ethereum, promising to reduce transaction fees for layer-2 protocols.

VanEck disclosed its upcoming Ethereum Strategy ETF on Sept. 28, saying it will invest in Ether futures contracts. The fund will be actively managed by Greg Krenzer, head of active trading at VanEck, and is expected to be listed on the Chicago Board Options Exchange in the coming days.

Other traditional investment firms set to offer exposure to Ether futures include Valkyrie and Bitwise, while the line for a spot Ether ETF keeps growing with Invesco Galaxy, ARK 21Shares and VanEck waiting for regulatory approval. The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) recently delayed a decision on whether to approve a spot Ether product until December.

Magazine: Joe Lubin — The truth about ETH founders split and ‘Crypto Google’

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FTX exploiter moved over $17M in ETH in the last 24 hours

A significant portion of the 7,749 ETH, worth roughly $13 million, was directed toward the THORChain router and Railgun contract.
According…

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A significant portion of the 7,749 ETH, worth roughly $13 million, was directed toward the THORChain router and Railgun contract.

According to recent information from Spot On Chain, an address linked to the FTX exploit identified as 0x3e9, has conducted transfers exceeding 10,000 Ether (ETH), worth roughly $17 million, across five different addresses since Sept. 30. The addresses had remained inactive for several months before the recent activity.

Within these transactions, a significant portion of 7,749 ETH, equivalent to $13 million, was directed toward the Thorchain router and Railgun contract. Furthermore, the exploiter engaged in a swap involving 2,500 ETH, valued at $4.19 million, converting it into 153.4 tBTC at an average rate of $27,281 per token. This address, which has recently become active, has exhibited noteworthy activity and is anticipated to continue transferring ETH, most likely to Thorchain.

At the time of the initial hack on Saturday, Sept. 30, the approximate losses amounted to nearly 50,000 ETH. This incident occurred just a short while before SBF's criminal trial scheduled for Oct. 2023.

Nevertheless, these occurrences have generated a significant amount of downward pressure on the ETH price, which currently maintains a level slightly above $1,650. This situation arises as the market anticipates the introduction of Ethereum futures ETFs on Monday, Oct. 2.

FTX co-founder Sam Bankman-Fried, commonly known as SBF, is scheduled to go to trial in October. This comes after his arrest in The Bahamas and subsequent extradition to the United States, marking several months since these events occurred.

The trial is expected to last for six weeks, beginning with the selection of the jury on Oct. 3, followed by the initial court proceedings on Oct. 4. Bankman-Fried faces a total of seven charges connected to fraudulent activities, comprising two substantive charges and five conspiracy charges.

Related: Valkyrie backtracks on Ether futures contract purchases until ETF launch

During the legal proceedings, the FTX founder has consistently pleaded not guilty to all allegations. Despite numerous attempts to secure temporary release, Bankman-Fried continues to be held in custody at the Metropolitan Detention Center. His most recent request for release was denied by Judge Lewis Kaplan, citing concerns about the possibility of him fleeing.

Magazine: Can you trust crypto exchanges after the collapse of FTX?

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SEC initiates legal action against FTX’s auditor

The SEC alleges that Prager Metis, an accounting firm engaged by bankrupt crypto exchange FTX in 2021, committed hundreds of violations related to auditor…

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The SEC alleges that Prager Metis, an accounting firm engaged by bankrupt crypto exchange FTX in 2021, committed hundreds of violations related to auditor independence.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has commenced legal proceedings against an accounting firm that had provided services to cryptocurrency exchange FTX before its bankruptcy declaration.

According to a Sept. 29 statement, the SEC alleged that accounting firm Prager Metis provided auditing services to its clients without maintaining the necessary independence as it continued to offer accounting services. This practice is prohibited under the auditor independence framework.

Extract from the SEC's September 29 statement. Source: SEC

To prevent conflicts of interest, accounting and audit tasks must be kept clearly separate. However, the SEC claims that these entwined activities spanned over a period of approximately three years:

“As alleged in our complaint, over a period of nearly three years, Prager’s audits, reviews, and exams fell short of these fundamental principles. Our complaint is an important reminder that auditor independence is crucial to investor protection.”

While the statement doesn't explicitly mention FTX or any other clients, it does emphasize that there were allegedly "hundreds" of auditor independence violations throughout the three-year period.

Furthermore, a previous court filing pointed out that the FTX Group engaged Metis to audit FTX US and FTX at some point in 2021. Subsequently, FTX declared bankruptcy in November 2022. 

The filing alleged that since former FTX CEO Sam Bankman-Fried publicly announced previous FTX audit results, Metis should have recognized that its work would be used by FTX to bolster public trust.

Related: FTX founder’s plea for temporary release should be denied, prosecution says

Concerns were previously reported about the material presented in FTX audit reports.

On Jan. 25, current FTX CEO John J. Ray III told a bankruptcy court that he had “substantial concerns as to the information presented in these audited financial statements.”

Furthermore, Senators Elizabeth Warren and Ron Wyden raised concerns about Prager Metis' impartiality. They argued that it functioned as an advocate for the crypto industry.

Meanwhile, a law firm that provided services to FTX has come under scrutiny in recent times.

In a Sept. 21 court filing, plaintiffs allege that U.S. based law firm, Fenwick & West, should be held partially liable for FTX's collapse because it reportedly exceeded the norm when it came to its service offerings to the exchange.

However, Fenwick & West asserts that it cannot be held accountable for a client's misconduct as long as its actions remain within the bounds of the client's representation.

Magazine: Blockchain detectives: Mt. Gox collapse saw birth of Chainalysis

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