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New species of green microalga identified in São Paulo

A group led by researchers affiliated with the Phycology Laboratory at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, have discovered a new species of green microalga in a reservoir located in the northwest of the state..

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A group led by researchers affiliated with the Phycology Laboratory at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, have discovered a new species of green microalga in a reservoir located in the northwest of the state. As a result of the discovery, microalgae of the genus Nephrocytium have been moved to an order belonging to a different taxonomic class and phylogenetically reclassified (placed in a new family).

Credit: CCMA/UFSCar

A group led by researchers affiliated with the Phycology Laboratory at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, have discovered a new species of green microalga in a reservoir located in the northwest of the state. As a result of the discovery, microalgae of the genus Nephrocytium have been moved to an order belonging to a different taxonomic class and phylogenetically reclassified (placed in a new family).

Green microalgae are found in freshwater and in the sea (where they are known as phytoplankton) and produce more than 80% of the oxygen present in the atmosphere. They are considered primary producers and hence the base of the food chain in aquatic environments. In addition, they have significant potential for commercial applications, such as biodiesel production.

The new species was found in a fishing pond called Muritiba, fed by a spring near the town of Tupã. The species was isolated in 2014 and is now part of UFSCar’s Freshwater Microalgae Culture Collection (CCMA). Begun in 1977 by Armando Augusto Henriques Vieira early in his career as a professor in the Department of Botany, CCMA is one of the world’s largest and oldest collections of freshwater microalgae, with some 800 strains deposited and conserved for researchers to analyze and potentially commercialize.

The new species was named Nephrocytium vieirae as a tribute to Vieira, who has retired and is now a senior professor at the university. The research that identified it was part of several projects supported by FAPESP (11/50054-412/19520-113/17457-313/18083-0 and 16/07089-5). 

The study involved samples collected at more than 300 sites including reservoirs, marches, bogs and lakes in all 22 hydrographic regions of the state. After collection by various scientists under Vieira’s supervision, the material was isolated in the laboratory and identified on the basis of morphology. During this process, a particular alga was isolated and identified as a morphotype similar to Nephrocytium. In taxonomy, a morphotype is an individual or set of organisms distinguished within the same species by having a certain physical structure.

Inessa Lacativa Bagatini, now a professor in UFSCar’s Department of Botany, was then a postdoctoral fellow under Vieira. After cleansing the specimen of contaminants such as fungi and bacteria, Bagatini found a molecular marker by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing. The marker placed the strain in the genus Nephrocytium, but pointed to the possibility that a new species had been found.

Thaís Garcia da Silva, first author of an article published on the research, was then studying different algal morphotypes for her doctorate. She sequenced other markers in the specimens and analyzed their morphology under an optical microscope. She then submitted them to transmission electron microscopy, cleaving cells to study the organelles, and scanning electron microscopy, analyzing the cell surface. This part of the research was assisted by Naiara Carolina Pereira Archanjo, also a researcher in UFSCar’s Department of Botany and a PhD candidate at the time.

Silva and Bagatini also collaborated with Lenka Štenclová, a researcher at the University of South Bohemia in the Czech Republic, to obtain molecular markers of a Nephrocytium species not available from CCMA at UFSCar. Integration of all this data confirmed that the DNA sequence obtained for the isolated strain was different from those of other species described in the literature. “Microalgae can have very similar morphology in various situations so that molecular markers must be used to decide whether a new species has been discovered, as was the case here,” Silva explained.

The next step was the mapping of a phylogenetic tree for Nephrocytium vieirae. Phylogeny traces the evolutionary history of a species, organizing beings into hierarchical taxonomic categories such as kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. A phylogenetic tree depicts the lines of evolutionary descent from a common ancestor, rather as a genealogical tree does for human families.

“When we were constructing the phylogenetic tree, we confirmed the suggestion in recent research that the genus belonged to a different class,” Silva said. In this stage of the study, the microalga in question was compared with microalgae in all families belonging to the order Sphaeropleales, to which it is allocated, and the researchers conducted a review of the scientific literature in which occurrences of the genus Nephrocytium were mentioned.

Phylogenetic reclassification

In the course of reclassifying the new species, the researchers noted several traits that would not let them keep microalgae of the genus Nephrocytium in the class Trebouxiophyceae, order Chlorellales and family Oocystaceae, as per the scientific literature. Based on the data they obtained in their various analyses, they proposed the creation of a new family, Nephrocytiaceae, belonging to the class Chlorophyceae and order Sphaeropleales.

The article with their findings is published in Taxon, the journal of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT), and signed by Silva, Bagatini, Štenclová and Archanjo.

As detailed in the article, microalgae of the family Nephrocytiaceae, including the newly discovered species N. vieirae, can be distinguished from others in the order Sphaeropleales by a combination of morphological traits, smooth cell surfaces, asexual reproduction via autospores, differences in ultrastructure (cell architecture visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical microscope), and molecular data. These characteristics corroborated their phylogenetic reclassification and placement in a new family.

Other reports of the new species

Publication of the results enables other researchers in Brazil and elsewhere to use the molecular markers to find out whether specimens can be classified as N. vieirae. “The morphology of N. lunatum closely resembles that of the recent discovery in Tupã. Anyone who has collected a Nephrocytium and not done a molecular phylogenetic analysis is likely to think it’s N. lunatum. Publication of our findings showing that we now have this marker could enable others to identify microalgae of the new species in other countries where massive parallel sequencing is used,” Bagatini said.

Massive parallel sequencing is widely deployed in research on microalgae. It entails simultaneous sequencing of many samples without observing morphology and comparing the results with sequences stored in a database. “If no matches with other organisms are found, the specimen is placed in the closest genus or taxonomic group,” Bagatini explained. The alternative is morphological and molecular analysis of individual organisms.

Correct classification is essential not only for researchers to be able to continue their studies but also for the development of industrial and biotech applications in general. “If you’re studying a species to develop a cancer drug, for example, and you want to look at others that maybe could produce more of the compound in question, you’ll look for a species that’s phylogenetically close,” Bagatini said, adding that incorrect taxonomic classification can lead to selection of organisms that lack the desired characteristics.

UFSCar’s microalgae collection

The new microalga joins a collection formed from a project that started with the sea. In 1970, Vieira was an undergraduate studying biology at the University of São Paulo (USP) and embarking on an internship at the Oceanographic Institute (IO-USP), where he would organize a marine phytoplankton collection. There he learned how to isolate marine microalgae and managed to mount a collection of some 100 strains. He worked at IO-USP until 1977, when he moved to UFSCar to focus on freshwater microalgae, whose study he decided to prioritize after attending a lecture on these organisms while still an undergraduate. UFSCar’s collection began with specimens collected in the vicinity of the university, but microalgae were soon being collected in other areas of the state thanks to funding won by Vieira. 

“We improved the quality of the collection as time passed, and some four years ago we implemented a cryogenic system to conserve microalgae in liquid nitrogen,” he said.

UFSCar’s collection has been used for research on biodiesel and to test swimming pool water treatment systems, as well as in research projects at several institutions around Brazil conducted by master’s and PhD candidates, and even by high school students. “Demand was low for a long time but has risen in the last few years because of an increase in potential uses,” Vieira said.

After retiring, he handed over to Bagatini as curator of the collection. “I’ve continued to help, and I plan to return and resume my support when the pandemic permits. There’s still plenty of material in the collection that needs to be studied,” he said.

Asked how he felt about having a species named after him, he said, “I’m flattered and grateful.” Because of this homage, his name does not appear as an author of the article, even though he supervised the team. “I was lucky to have such good students. They’re now fully qualified professionals working in Brazil and abroad,” he noted.

About São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

The São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) is a public institution with the mission of supporting scientific research in all fields of knowledge by awarding scholarships, fellowships and grants to investigators linked with higher education and research institutions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. FAPESP is aware that the very best research can only be done by working with the best researchers internationally. Therefore, it has established partnerships with funding agencies, higher education, private companies, and research organizations in other countries known for the quality of their research and has been encouraging scientists funded by its grants to further develop their international collaboration. You can learn more about FAPESP at www.fapesp.br/en and visit FAPESP news agency at www.agencia.fapesp.br/en to keep updated with the latest scientific breakthroughs FAPESP helps achieve through its many programs, awards and research centers. You may also subscribe to FAPESP news agency at http://agencia.fapesp.br/subscribe.


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TV Show Mysteriously Deletes Poll After Vast Majority Oppose Mandatory Vaccination

TV Show Mysteriously Deletes Poll After Vast Majority Oppose Mandatory Vaccination

Authored by Paul Joseph Watson via Summit News,

A major morning television show in the UK deleted a Twitter poll asking if vaccines should be made mandatory..

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TV Show Mysteriously Deletes Poll After Vast Majority Oppose Mandatory Vaccination

Authored by Paul Joseph Watson via Summit News,

A major morning television show in the UK deleted a Twitter poll asking if vaccines should be made mandatory after the results showed that 89% of respondents oppose compulsory shots.

Yes, really.

Good Morning Britain, which often tries to set the news agenda, posted the poll which asked the public, “With Omicron cases doubling every two days, is it time to make vaccines mandatory?”

The last screenshots Twitter users were able to obtain before the poll was wiped showed 89% oppose mandatory vaccinations, with just 11% in favor after a total of over 42,000 votes.

People demanded to know why the poll had been pulled, although it wasn’t exactly hard to guess.

Why did you delete this poll, is it because you were asked? Or because it shows the people don’t support this s**t, this tyrannical future your colleagues seem to want. We see you,” commented one respondent.

“Guess that wasn’t the answer they were looking for,” remarked another.

Good Morning Britain has failed to explain why it removed the poll.

However, it’s unsurprising given that the broadcast has been a vehicle for pushing pro-lockdown messaging since the start of the pandemic.

For most of that time, it was hosted by Piers Morgan, an aggressive proponent of lockdowns, mandatory vaccines and face masks.

The show also regularly features Dr. Hillary Jones, someone who at the start of the pandemic warned that face masks could make the spread of the virus worse, before getting the memo and doing a complete 180.

*  *  *

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Tyler Durden Thu, 12/09/2021 - 03:30

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UK PM announces tougher measures amid more Covid cases

In total, the UK recorded 51,342 new COVID-19 cases in the last 24 hours…
The post UK PM announces tougher measures amid more Covid cases first appeared on Trading and Investment News.

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In total, the UK recorded 51,342 new COVID-19 cases in the last 24 hours on Wednesday and a further 161 people have died within 28 days of testing positive for the novel coronavirus

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson on Wednesday announced tougher measures such as work from home where possible, expanded face mask rules and use of COVID-19 vaccination certificates for entry to venues, as another 131 cases of the new Omicron variant were recorded, taking the total to 568.

The UK government’s Plan B winter strategy comes in force in stages starting this Friday, in an effort to slow the spread of the highly transmissible variant, which Johnson said shows a doubling time of two or three days.

Addressing a Downing Street media briefing, he said all signs indicate that Omicron transmits more rapidly than the previously dominant Delta variant of COVID-19.

From this Friday, we will further extend the legal requirement to wear face masks in public indoor venues, including theatres and cinemas. We will reintroduce guidance to work from home from Monday work from home if you can, go to work if you must but work from home if you can, said Johnson.

We’ll also make the NHS COVID pass mandatory for entry into nightclubs and venues where large crowds gather, including unseated indoor venues with more than 500 people, and seated outdoor venues with more than 4,000 people and any venue with more than 10,000 people, he said, adding that this will come into effect from next week.

Johnson once again called on everyone to come forward for their COVID vaccinations, including all adults now eligible for a third top-up booster dose.

We must be humbled in the face of this virus. As soon as it becomes clear that the boosters are capable of holding this Omicron variant and we have boosted enough people to do that job of keeping Omicron in equilibrium, we will be able to move forward as before. Please everybody play your part and get boosted, he said.

The government had so far stopped short of enforcing Plan B and issued guidelines for compulsory face masks on transport and some indoor settings, such as shops.

We now have, in the Omicron variant, a variant that is spreading much faster than any that we have seen before. That is why I ask everybody to go to get their booster jab as soon as they are called to come forward, said Johnson, when asked about Plan B in Parliament on Wednesday.

In total, the UK recorded 51,342 new COVID-19 cases in the last 24 hours on Wednesday and a further 161 people have died within 28 days of testing positive for the novel coronavirus.

Since the first jab was delivered one year ago today, our phenomenal vaccine rollout has saved hundreds of thousands of lives and given us the best possible protection against COVID-19, said Johnson.

Our fight against the virus is not over yet, but vaccines remain our first and best line of defence against the virus so the best way to continue to protect yourself and your loved ones is to get behind the vaccine programme and get boosted as soon as you’re eligible, he said.

The post UK PM announces tougher measures amid more Covid cases first appeared on Trading and Investment News.

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Canada’s Top Renewable & Clean Energy Stocks for December 2021

There’s no questioning the fact that as a population we’re moving towards cleaner, greener forms of energy. Fossil fuels will be a thing of the past, and the world will benefit immensely from it.How long will it take before Canadian renewable companies…

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There's no questioning the fact that as a population we're moving towards cleaner, greener forms of energy. Fossil fuels will be a thing of the past, and the world will benefit immensely from it.

How long will it take before Canadian renewable companies dominate the energy scene? It's difficult to say. But if I were to guess, not long at all. That's why you need to have a look at these Canadian stocks before it's too late.

The renewable energy vs fossil fuel debate is a heated one

The effects of fossil fuels on the climate and climate change in general is an extremely touchy subject, and arguments from both sides tend to pack a sizable punch in terms of support. Plus, much like Canadian gold stocks, fossil fuel companies rely heavily on a commodity and can be quite cyclical.

But all while this is happening, green energy companies here in Canada are quietly amassing large asset bases and production capacities. It's an investment gold mine.

Your best bet as an investor is to funnel out the noise and instead take a position in a strong TSX listed renewable energy stock.

Because it's a matter of when, not if these companies take over as the primary method of energy generation

And while people sit on the sidelines, squabbling over if swapping to renewables is worth it, you can be making boatloads of money off of it.

Don't believe me? These clean energy companies have crushed the returns of the TSX Index.

So if you're new to buying stocks here in Canada, you may want to know what exactly these Canadian renewable energy companies do. Lets go over it.

What exactly do Canadian renewable energy companies do?

Renewable energy is defined as such:

"energy from natural resources that can be naturally replenished within a human lifespan." - Natural Resources Canada

Renewable energy companies provide sources of power that are often considered cleaner and more sustainable including but not limited to:

  • Hydroelectric
  • Wind
  • Solar
  • Biomass
  • Hydrogen

Renewable energy provides nearly 20% of Canada's energy supply, with hydroelectricity accounting for over half of that.

A common misconception with Canadian green energy companies? 

Renewable companies aren't the new kids on the block, despite many thinking so.

In fact, they have been around for quite some time now, and as a result clean energy stocks provide stable and reliable cash flows, much like regulated utility giants Fortis, Canadian Utilities and Emera.

The end result?

Clean energy companies are able to provide strong dividends to go along with upside potential in an ever growing industry.

Let’s take a closer look at four renewable energy companies we think are the cream of the crop here in Canada for 2021.

As requested by many readers, we've also added a solar energy company to the list in this most recent update. Solar stocks in Canada have been around for a while, but have remained relatively unknown due to high costs, and investors are starting to gain interest

What are the best Canadian renewable energy stocks?

4. Canadian Solar Inc (NASDAQ:CSIQ)

One of the primary reasons we've never included a Canadian solar company on this list of renewable energy stocks is the fact that the best of the best trades down south on the NASDAQ.

However, due to increasing demand we figure we'd start talking about Canadian Solar Inc (NASDAQ:CSIQ).

Solar stocks in general have surged as of late, but since its lows in March 2020 Canadian Solar has shot up over 81%.

The stock has dipped significantly from all time highs however as renewable energy companies have gone through a significant correction. But, there is still a bullish attitude.

We think investors, and analysts for that matter, are finally starting to see the potential in the once small cap Canadian (but U.S. traded) company.

Canadian Solar benefits from a fairly low cost of production and has a decent amount of projects planned for the future.

Initially, solar power faced a lot of criticism. Production costs were extremely high, and it wasn't looked at as a permanent solution to dirtier forms of power.

But the fact is, we wouldn't even need to capture one-hundredth of a percent of the energy hitting the earth in a year to be able to scrap every other form of energy generation. And as costs of production come down, it's becoming a more feasible clean energy generation method.

Canadian Solar has been a very frustrating stock for those buying it as a value investment.

But interestingly enough, even with a 81% run up, Canadian Solar is still fairly valued considering the future of solar energy.

Trading at only 0.38 times 2021 expected sales and 14.23 times 2021 expected earnings, valuations are not outrageous. The company has been fairly inconsistent with its growth, which is why the market isn't really willing to pay a high earnings multiple. But again, most of its inconsistencies have been as a result of what we've stated above.

Growth is expected to pick back up in 2022 and 2023, and 2023 expected revenue of $7B USD would mark a 100% increase from 2020 revenue of $3.47B. There is promise in the industry, and at current valuations the company is certainly worth a look.

Keep in mind however, this is the only renewable energy stock on this list that doesn't currently pay a dividend, and we would classify this stock as the highest risk of the bunch as well.

CSIQ 5 year performance vs the NASDAQ:

CSIQ Vs NASDAQ 5 Year

3. Northland Power (TSX:NPI)

Northland Power Logo

Northland Power (TSX:NPI) is a pure-play renewable energy company, and one that has been in business for a long period of time. The company was established in 1987, and operates nearly 2.8 GW of electricity, with potential future capacity in excess of 5 GW.

Northland has witnessed some incredible growth in terms of earnings over the last 3 years with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in excess of 30%. The company has also managed to more than double revenue since 2015.

The bulk of the company's renewable operations are located in Eastern Canada.

In fact, the farthest the company reaches out west are two facilities in Saskatchewan - its Spy Hill facility with 86 MW of production and its North Battleford facility, with 260 MW of production. Both of these facilities generate power by burning natural gas and full contracts are established until 2036 and 2033 respectively.

The company has a total of 27 assets, 2 of which we've already talked about. With 19 facilities in the province, Northland has a high percentage of its assets in Ontario. Quebec has 2 wind farms, while the Netherlands and Germany have one wind farm each, Netherlands being offshore.

The renewable company closed on its acquisition of EBSA back in September of 2019, a Colombian regulated utility company for around $1.05 billion. EBSA serves nearly half a million customers, and its revenue is highly regulated, thus highly reliable. It also provides Northland Power with strong revenue outside of North America.

In terms of performance, Northland Power, at least over the last year and a half, has not disappointed. Much like other Canadian renewable energy stocks, it was hit hard in the correction at the start of 2021. However, it held on better than most and didn't witness the volatility that many small/micro cap renewable companies did.

The company currently has a yield in the high 2% range and a payout ratio in terms of earnings of 104%. This payout ratio looks high, however the dividend is well covered by cash flow at 16.09%.

Northland Power's lack of dividend growth is one of the primary reasons it falls short on this list. Especially considering the company has ample room to grow it.

But, don't let that fool you, this is still a very strong renewable energy stock, one that has actually faced some recent weakness due to seasonal and temporary issues with its windfarms.

NPI.TO 5 year performance vs the TSX:

TSE:NPI vs TSX Index

2. Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners (TSX:BEP.UN)

Brookfield Renewable Partners

Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners (TSX:BEP.UN) is another pure-play renewable company and is one of the fastest growing by a landslide. The company is expected to grow earnings at a rate of nearly 40% over the next 5 years.

To add to this, the company is already the fastest growing pure-play renewable energy company in the country with a compound annual growth rate of 10.71%.

The company has over 20,000 MW of capacity and just shy of 6000 facilities in North America, Europe, Asia and South America.

The company's goal is to deliver shareholders annual returns in the 12-15% range. Thus far, it has more than accomplished its objective.

The company's portfolio consists of wind, solar, storage facilities and distributed generation and most importantly, hydroelectric, which makes up over 62% of its portfolio. An interesting note, this is down from the 75% that was noted last time we updated this article, a sign the company is diversifying its asset base.

Back in March of 2020, the company entered an agreement to buy Terraform Energy in an all stock deal. Why are we still mentioning this year later? Well, this purchase made Brookfield Renewable Partners the biggest pure-play renewable energy company in the world.

The company pays a generous dividend, north of 3%, and the dividend accounts for only 80%~ of funds from operations.

Management has stated they want its dividend to grow by 5-9% annually over the next 5 years. This would be an increase over its past results, so it will be interesting to see how the company performs.

Renewable companies faced a significant correction in 2021, which will be evident in the performance chart below. In our eyes, all this did was make Brookfield Renewables more attractive.

In our last update of this piece, we had stated that valuation was one of the main reasons it was number 3 on this list. Well, we've bumped it up to number 2 now due to its recent correction.

The company also set up a Canadian corporation, BEPC, to be the "equivalent" to the partnership BEP.UN. This is primarily a tax consideration, one that you'll need to figure out on your own which one is best for you.

Brookfield Renewables 5 year performance vs the TSX:

TSE:BEP.UN Vs TSX Index

1. Algonquin Power (TSX:AQN)

Algonquin

Algonquin Power & Utilities (TSX:AQN) is a diversified generation, transmission and distribution utility company. The company provides rate regulated natural gas, water, and electricity generation, transmission, and distribution utility services to over 1 million customers in the United States and Canada.

The company is engaged in the generation of clean energy through its portfolio of long term contracted wind, solar and hydroelectric generating facilities representing more than 1,600 megawatts (MW) of installed capacity.

There are a few things we really like about the company, but there's one thing that stands out with Algonquin, and that is its growth rates.

Algonquin is one of the fastest growing utility companies on the TSX Index. In fact, the company grew earnings by 33% in 2020, and prior to a very unfortunate one-off event in Texas that ended up costing the company $55 million, analysts expected strong growth in 2021 as well.

They've changed their tune now, and overall it will be a flat or even shrinking year for Algonquin. But, it's important to understand that this is very temporary, and we'd expect the company to get back to growth in 2022. In fact, the company expects to inject $9.4B USD into capital projects through 2025, adding more than 1.6 GW of capacity.

2021 aside, you're not going to find many utility companies on the index that provide this kind of growth, especially one that offers a rock solid dividend to go along with it.

Algonquin, at the time of writing, yields north of 4%. In terms of earnings this works out to be a payout ratio of around 40%.

With a dividend growth streak of 10 years, the company has proven to be capable of consistently raising its dividend. In fact, Algonquin is one of the few Canadian Dividend Aristocrats that raised the dividend during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Algonquin is a top 5 holding in one of Canada's biggest utility ETFs, and pays its dividend in US dollars, providing an even more attractive proposition to Canadian investors.

AQN.TO 5 year performance vs the TSX

TSE:AQN vs TSX Index


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