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“Natural Immunity” from Omicron is Weak and Limited, Study Finds

“Natural Immunity” from Omicron is Weak and Limited, Study Finds
PR Newswire
SAN FRANCISCO, May 18, 2022

Without vaccination, infection with Omicron fails to confer robust immunity against other COVID-19 variants
SAN FRANCISCO, May 18, 2022 /PRNews…

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"Natural Immunity" from Omicron is Weak and Limited, Study Finds

PR Newswire

Without vaccination, infection with Omicron fails to confer robust immunity against other COVID-19 variants

SAN FRANCISCO, May 18, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- In unvaccinated people, infection with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 provides little long-term immunity against other variants, according to a new study by researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF), published today in the journal Nature.

In experiments using mice and blood samples from donors who were infected with Omicron, the team found that the Omicron variant induces only a weak immune response. In vaccinated individuals, this response—while weak—helped strengthen overall protection against a variety of COVID-19 strains. In those without prior vaccination, however, the immune response failed to confer broad, robust protection against other strains.

"In the unvaccinated population, an infection with Omicron might be roughly equivalent to getting one shot of a vaccine," says Melanie Ott, MD, PhD, director of the Gladstone Institute of Virology and co-senior author of the new work. "It confers a little bit of protection against COVID-19, but it's not very broad."

"This research underscores the importance of staying current with your vaccinations, even if you have previously been infected with the Omicron variant, as you are still likely vulnerable to re-infection," says co-senior author Jennifer Doudna, PhD, who is a senior investigator at Gladstone, a professor at UC Berkeley, founder of the Innovative Genomics Institute, and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

A Weaker Infection

As the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 spread around the globe in late 2021 and early 2022, anecdotal evidence quickly mounted that it was causing less severe symptoms than Delta and other variants of concern. However, scientists weren't initially sure why that was, or how a weaker infection might impact long-term immunity against COVID-19.

"When the Omicron variant first emerged, a lot of people wondered whether it could essentially act as a vaccine for people who didn't want to get vaccinated, eliciting a strong and broad-acting immune response," says Irene Chen, co-first author of the new study and graduate student in Ott's lab. Other first authors are Rahul Suryawanshi, PhD, a Gladstone staff research scientist, and Tongcui Ma, PhD, scientist in the Roan Lab at Gladstone.

To find the answer, the team of researchers first examined the effect of Omicron in mice. Compared to an ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta variant, Omicron led to far fewer symptoms in the mice. However, the virus was detected in airway cells, albeit at lower levels. Similarly, Omicron was able to infect isolated human cells but replicated less than other variants.

The team then characterized the immune response generated by Omicron infections. In mice infected with Omicron, despite the milder symptoms, the immune system still generated the T cells and antibodies typically seen in response to other viruses.

"We demonstrated in this study that the lower pathogenicity of Omicron is not because the virus cannot take hold," says Nadia Roan, PhD, an associate investigator at Gladstone.

That leaves other reasons that might explain why Omicron differs from other variants in terms of symptoms and immunity, including the lower replication seen with Omicron or the types of antibodies that the immune system generates in response to the virus.

No Cross-Variant Protection

To gauge how the immune response against Omicron fared over time, the researchers collected blood samples from mice infected with the ancestral, Delta, or Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 and measured the ability of their immune cells and antibodies to recognize five different viral variants—ancestral (WA1), Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron.

Blood from uninfected animals was unable to neutralize any of the viruses—in other words, block the ability of any of the viruses to copy themselves. Samples from WA1-infected animals could neutralize Alpha and, to a lesser degree, the Beta and Delta virus—but not Omicron. Samples from Delta-infected mice could neutralize Delta, Alpha and, to a lesser degree, the Omicron and Beta virus.

However, blood from Omicron-infected mice could only neutralize the Omicron variant.

The team confirmed these results using blood from ten unvaccinated people who had been infected with Omicron—their blood was not able to neutralize other variants. When they tested blood from 11 unvaccinated people who had been infected with Delta, the samples could neutralize Delta and, as had been seen in mice, the other variants to a lesser extent.

When they repeated the experiments with blood from vaccinated people, the results were different: vaccinated individuals with confirmed Omicron or Delta breakthrough infections all showed the ability to neutralize all the tested variants, conferring higher protection.

"When it comes to other variants that might evolve in the future, we can't predict exactly what would happen, but based on these results, I'd suspect that unvaccinated people who were infected with Omicron will have very little protection," says Ott. "But on the contrary, vaccinated individuals are likely to be more broadly protected against future variants, especially if they had a breakthrough infection."

"Our results may be useful not only to inform individuals' decisions on vaccination, but also for the design of future COVID-19 vaccines that confer broad protection against many variants," says Charles Chiu, MD, PhD, a professor of infectious diseases at UCSF and a co-senior author of the work.

About the Research Project

The paper "Limited Cross-Variant Immunity after Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Without Vaccination" was published in the journal Nature on May 18, 2022.

Other authors are Abdullah Syed, Camille Simoneau, Alison Ciling, Mir Khalid, Bharath Sreekumar, Pei-Yi Chen, Renuka Kumar, Mauricio Montano, Ronne Gascon, Frank Soveg, Ashley George, and Warner Greene of Gladstone; Noah Brazer, Prachi Saldhi, Miguel Garcia-Knight, Alicia Sotomayor-Gonzalez, Venice Servillita, Amelia Gliwa, Jenny Nguyen, Xiaohui Fang, Mazharul Maishan, Michael Matthay, and Raul Andino of UCSF; and Ines Silva, Bilal Milbes, Noah Kojima, Victoria Hess, Maria Shacreaw, Lauren Lopez, Matthew Brobeck, Fred Turner, and Lee Spraggon of Curative, Inc.

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants F31 AI164671-01, U54HL147127 and R21AI59666), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PDF-533021-2019), the Roddenberry Foundation, Pamela and Edward Taft, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Van Auken Private Foundation, David Henke, Emergent Ventures at the Mercatus Center (Fast Grants #2164 and #2208), George Mason University, the Innovative Genomics Institute, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (75D30121C10991), Abbott Laboratories, and the Sandler Program for Breakthrough Biomedical Research at UCSF.

About Gladstone Institutes

To ensure our work does the greatest good, Gladstone Institutes focuses on conditions with profound medical, economic, and social impact—unsolved diseases. Gladstone is an independent, nonprofit life science research organization that uses visionary science and technology to overcome disease. It has an academic affiliation with the University of California, San Francisco.

Media Contact: Julie Langelier, Associate Director, Communications, julie.langelier@gladstone.org, 415.734.5000, @GladstoneInst

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SOURCE Gladstone Institutes

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Economics

Expert on Bath & Body Works: ‘an easy double the next three years’

Bath & Body Works Inc (NYSE: BBWI) might have been painful for the shareholders this year, but the road ahead will likely be a rewarding one, says…

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Bath & Body Works Inc (NYSE: BBWI) might have been painful for the shareholders this year, but the road ahead will likely be a rewarding one, says the Senior Vice President and Portfolio Manager at Westwood Group.

BBWI separated from Victoria’s Secret

The retail chain separated from Victoria’s Secret in 2021, which, as per Lauren Hill, clears the way for a 100% increase in the stock price in the coming years. On CNBC’s “Closing Bell: Overtime”, she said:

[Bath & Body Works] has really strong pricing power. They have 85% of their supply chain in the United States and with the Victoria’s Secret brand now gone, I think it’s a wonderful buy; an easy double the next three years.

Last month, the Columbus-headquartered company reported results for its fiscal first quarter that topped Wall Street expectations.

Bath & Body Works is a reopening play

The stock currently trades at a PE multiple of 6.64. Hill is convinced Bath & Body works is a reopening name and will perform so much better as the world continues to pull out of the pandemic. She noted:

Customers have missed buying their scented products in store and as their social occasion calendars fill up, they are getting back out there and buying more gifts, including Bath & Body Works products.

Hill also dubbed BBWI a great pick amidst the ongoing inflationary pressures because of its reasonably priced products. Shares are down more than 50% versus the start of 2022.

The post Expert on Bath & Body Works: ‘an easy double the next three years’ appeared first on Invezz.

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Economics

Majority Of C-Suite Execs Thinking Of Quitting, 40% Overwhelmed At Work: Deloitte Survey

Majority Of C-Suite Execs Thinking Of Quitting, 40% Overwhelmed At Work: Deloitte Survey

Authored by Naveen Anthrapully via The Epoch Times,

A…

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Majority Of C-Suite Execs Thinking Of Quitting, 40% Overwhelmed At Work: Deloitte Survey

Authored by Naveen Anthrapully via The Epoch Times,

A majority of C-suite executives are considering leaving their jobs, according to a Deloitte survey of 2,100 employees and C-level executives from the United States, Canada, the UK, and Australia.

Almost 70 percent of executives admitted that they are seriously thinking of quitting their jobs for a better opportunity that supports their well-being, according to the survey report published on June 22. Over three-quarters of executives said that the COVID-19 pandemic had negatively affected their well-being.

Roughly one in three employees and C-suite executives admitted to constantly struggling with poor mental health and fatigue. While 41 percent of executives “always” or “often” felt stressed, 40 percent were overwhelmed, 36 percent were exhausted, 30 percent felt lonely, and 26 percent were depressed.

“Most employees (83 percent) and executives (74 percent) say they’re facing obstacles when it comes to achieving their well-being goals—and these are largely tied to their job,” the report says. “In fact, the top two hurdles that people cited were a heavy workload or stressful job (30 percent), and not having enough time because of long work hours (27 percent).”

While 70 percent of C-suite execs admitted to considering quitting, this number was at only 57 percent among other employees. The report speculated that a reason for such a wide gap might be the fact that top-level executives are often in a “stronger financial position,” due to which they can afford to seek new career opportunities.

Interestingly, while only 56 percent of employees think their company executives care about their well-being, a much higher 91 percent of C-suite administrators were of the opinion that their employees believe their leaders took care of them. The report called this a “notable gap.”

Resignation Rates

The Deloitte report comes amid a debate about resignation rates in the U.S. workforce. Over 4.4 million Americans quit their jobs in April, with job openings hitting 11.9 million, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. In the period from January 2021 to February 2022, almost 57 million Americans left their jobs.

Though some are terming it the “Great Resignation,” giving it a negative connotation, the implication is not entirely true since most of those who quit jobs did so for other opportunities. In the same 14 months, almost 89 million people were hired. There are almost two jobs open for every unemployed person in the United States, according to MarketWatch.

In an Economic Letter from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco published in April, economics professor Bart Hobijn points out that high waves of resignations were common during rapid economic recoveries in the postwar period prior to 2000.

“The quits waves in manufacturing in 1948, 1951, 1953, 1966, 1969, and 1973 are of the same order of magnitude as the current wave,” he wrote. “All of these waves coincide with periods when payroll employment grew very fast, both in the manufacturing sector and the total nonfarm sector.”

Tyler Durden Sat, 06/25/2022 - 20:30

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Spread & Containment

Optimism Slowly Returns To The Tourism Sector

Optimism Slowly Returns To The Tourism Sector

Coming off the worst year in tourism history, 2021 wasn’t much of an improvement, as travel…

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Optimism Slowly Returns To The Tourism Sector

Coming off the worst year in tourism history, 2021 wasn't much of an improvement, as travel remained subdued in the face of the persistent threat posed by Covid-19.

According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), export revenues from tourism (including passenger transport receipts) remained more than $1 trillion below pre-pandemic levels in 2021, marking the second trillion-dollar loss for the tourism industry in as many years.

As Statista's Felix Richter details below, while the brief rebound in the summer months of 2020 had fueled hopes of a quick recovery for the tourism sector, those hopes were dashed with each subsequent wave of the pandemic.

And despite a record-breaking global vaccine rollout, travel experts struggled to stay optimistic in 2021, as governments kept many restrictions in place in their effort to curb the spread of new, potentially more dangerous variants of the coronavirus.

Halfway through 2022, optimism has returned to the industry, however, as travel demand is ticking up in many regions.

You will find more infographics at Statista

According to UNWTO's latest Tourism Barometer, industry experts are now considerably more confident than they were at the beginning of the year, with 48 percent of expert panel participants expecting a full recovery of the tourism sector in 2023, up from just 32 percent in January. 44 percent of surveyed industry insiders still think it'll take until 2024 or longer for tourism to return to pre-pandemic levels, another notable improvement from 64 percent in January.

Tyler Durden Sat, 06/25/2022 - 21:00

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